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Use of Quotes

David, Moderator
Our Policy on the Use of Quotations We understand that members occasionally desire or need to ask grammar-related questions about sentences or phrases that were written by others, and it is perfectly acceptable for you to do so. However, if you wish to include sentences or phrases in a post that were not originally written by you, you must do two things: 1) You must show punctuationally that they are not your words. 2) You must cite what you have taken the text from. The easiest way to...Read More...

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Expressions of time limits

Regarding the expressions of time limits or some quantities as an object of prepositions, is it possible to make a generalization such as below? "If the reference point is the point of arrival , include it. If the reference point is the starting point, do not include it (they constitute comparisons)" Under these rules, objects of “until” and “by” are arrival points, so the referenced points are to be included, but these of “before”, they are starting point and to be excluded. For example, by...Read More...

Relative pronouns

1/Our new car...... we bought last month,seats five people(which/that) 2/He wants to tell you something.... is very important(which/that)Read More...
Hi, Ahmed, Are you sure there is no comma after 'car'? If there is, then the answer is 'which' . 'That' is the better answer because it is commonly used after quantifiers like 'something'.Read More...
Last Reply By ahmed_btm · First Unread Post

grammatical structure "as many as..."

Dear Sir: I am an English teacher. Another English teacher asked me about this grammar structure: Galatians 3:10, King James Version: "For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse;...." She asked how to explain why there are 2 verbs ("are"). She wonders if there is a word missing. I said the part "as are of the works of the law" is modifying the subject "many," answering the question "how many?" Then the subject "many" goes with the predicate "are under the curse." She...Read More...
[ Note : I was composing this when Gustavo answered. I think our two replies are in agreement; they make the same point in different ways.] Hello, PamelaH, and welcome to the Grammar Exchange! Thank you for this interesting question. I enjoy pondering historical English usage, especially that found in the King James translation of the Bible. We should bear in mind, though, that the King James translation was written over four hundred years ago, and that the language has changed in many ways...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Restrictive vs nonrestrictive

Hello! The 2 people are talking about the Coronavirus: - Don't worry, young people will be fine. - The problem is the elder relative which we all have. Question: Is "which we all have" a restrictive relative clause? If it is not, is a comma needed before it?Read More...

using all lowercase for vitamin type for style

if you are writing in all lowercase for style, is it allowed that when referring to vitamin type the letter is still lowercase and not uppper? Example: vitamin c vs. vitamin CRead More...
Hi, Jambo12, and welcome to the Grammar Exchange. I don't think so, because it's the name of the vitamin. You might want to read this blog .Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Contributor · First Unread Post

Need help.

Hi, I bought an apartment near my son's school. Now I'm living with my parents and will move there soon. It is not furnished, so I'll have to get all the furniture. I don't have much money to buy furniture. So I am planning to buy only the necessary items. I heard about this furniture store in Edmonton , they sell furniture at a low price. Has anyone tried them? Please give me feedback if you have. Is this Grammarly correct? I want to text to one of the dealers there, so please solve any...Read More...
Okay, Thanks.Read More...
Last Reply By felixsaniya · First Unread Post

will vs. going to

He hasn't studied hard enough. He won't / isn't going to pass the exams. The plate is very hot. If you touch it, you will burn / are going to burn yourself. What are the best choices, please? Thanks!Read More...
Both choices are possible in all your questions, especially (1) and (2). You are pushing towards 'is going to' but the problem with your questions is that my knowledge of his studying hard doesn't represent clear evidence for his success. Concerning the third question, I see that if the focus is on 'anything', the better answer will be 'isn't going to'. However, 'will' works well in all your questions, as well.Read More...
Last Reply By ahmed_btm · First Unread Post

Noun clause and adverb clause

Ali Reza
Hello. There is one thing about adverb clause and noun clause that blows my mind. We can use "wheter or not" and "if" in both clauses, so what is the diffirence between these two? Best regards! AliRead More...
Hello, Ali Reza, and welcome to the Grammar Exchange. "if" can introduce adverbial (conditional) or noun clauses, while "whether (or not)" can introduce noun or adverbial (concessive) clauses. Is that what you are asking? - I don't know if you are satisfied. (nominal) - I don't know whether you are satisfied (or not). (nominal) - I'll be happy if you are satisfied. (conditional) - I'll be happy whether you are satisfied or not . (concessive)Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Contributor · First Unread Post

Reference points included?

A statement such as "He paid me more than $ 200 last month" excludes the case that the person gave me $200 just. Is it safe to think that "above" and "below" do not include the reference points? On the other hand, in the phrases "between you and me", it includes the two people referred to, so I think "between $200 and $300" would also include the reference points. If so, what would be the difference between these two sets of prepositions? Thank you very much.Read More...
Gustavo, >the reference points will not be included if what is measured has a different nature, Informative and very interesting explanation. Thank you very much!Read More...
Last Reply By ken · First Unread Post

Possesion

Which affirmation is correct and why? ( I think the first one is correct but I don't know to explain why) 1.You changed your hair color. 2.You changed your hair's color.Read More...
Hello, Crys, and welcome to the Grammar Exchange. Both sentences are grammatically correct, but (1) sounds more natural than (2). One reason for this may be the prevalence of such related compound nouns as hairspray, hair products, haircut, hair length , etc. Another reason may be that hairs, hairs' , and hair's all sound exactly alike, and the speaker means to speak of the interlocutor's hair as a whole. Hair is a count and a noncount noun. It is more normal to say "You changed the color of...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Relative pronouns

This is a story ......hero travels to space (in which/whose) The suggested answer is "whose" but I think both are correct 2/that's the stadium ... we saw the cup final at(which/where)Read More...
Hi, Ahmed, The suggested answer is the only correct answer here. To use another relative pronoun, you must insert a definite or an indefinite article before 'hero'. Only 'which' works here.Read More...
Last Reply By ahmed_btm · First Unread Post

like X better than Y

A teacher's note for the lesson on expressing preferences with " like ... better than... " says that "It is also possible to use an infinitive after like ; the text presents only the gerund pattern here. Using an infinitive with like ... better than can lead to awkward sentences and confusion with placement of the to . Native speakers would be likely to avoid such structures and, therefore, they aren't presented here. Recommended Pattern in the text: 1. I like tea better than coffee. (Like...Read More...
Thanks Gustavo.Read More...
Last Reply By Hussain · First Unread Post

more crimes

1) He committed a lot of crimes in New York. Later, he committed more crimes in Austin. 2) He committed a lot of crimes in New York. Later, he committed a lot more crimes in Austin. Aren't these sentences ambiguous? Two possible interpretations: a) He committed a greater ('much greater' in the case of '2') number of crimes in Austin than he had committed in New York. b) He committed additional crimes in Austin, but it is not clear whether the number of the crimes in Austin is higher than the...Read More...

The word 'salient'

I would like to use the word salient kinda like this... "It is so salient." Meaning that "it" is of profound importance or even ironic. Is this improper? All of the uses I saw online show salient as an adjective, using it to modify the meaning of a noun. Sorry, have forgotten proper grammar! I even researched a bit on adjectives and adverbs, not even sure what it is in the context I want to use it, an adverb, I assume!Read More...
Thanks for answering, I think it will work how I am using it.Read More...
Last Reply By livemusic · First Unread Post

By the time

Hello! Could you please tell me which of the interpretations is correct? - The telephone was ringing, but by the time I got indoors, it stopped. Interpretations: 1. By the time I got indoors, the telephone had stopped. 2. The telephone stopped immediately after I got indoors. Thanks in advance.Read More...
Hi, Robby zhu, I think interpretation (2) should be: 2'. The telephone stopped immediately before I got in. The use of the past perfect will suggest anteriority: 1'. By the time I got in, the telephone had already stopped (some time before my arrival).Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Contributor · First Unread Post

unless in 2nd and 3rd conditionals

Hello. Are the following two sentences correct or not? If not correct, what's wrong with them? - Tarek would not have caught that bus unless he had run very fast. - Unless you had rung me, I wouldn't have come to see you. Thank you.Read More...
Yes, I agree with you. Although I know that it is mentioned in one of our old exams, I see that it isn't well-written. It is quite clear from its meaning that we do throw rubbish into the sea, so, in my opinion, it should be like this: - The sea will become more polluted if we do n't stop dumping rubbish into it. (Meaning: It is one of the ways to stop its pollution).Read More...
Last Reply By ahmed_btm · First Unread Post

"since ... ago"

I have a question about a grammar point, not covered in any grammar-related book, that is difficult for non-native English speakers. I would be so grateful if you could briefly explain why the following sentences are correct or incorrect: 1. I haven’t seen Ali since two minutes ago . 2. I haven't been to London since two years ago . Specifically, my question is about the construction of “since ... ago”, which many English teachers in my country believe is correct. They say a continuative...Read More...
Hi, Freeguy—Although I can't say that I recommend teaching it to learners, I do view the construction you are asking about as informally correct. It is a perfectly understandable, if clumsy, construction; nevertheless, it has its uses in informal English and is not uncommon among native speakers. Normally, as you observe, the object of "since" in such sentences is a specific time, even if it is indicated in a general way ("I haven't been to London since 1993"; "I haven't been to London since...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

conditional

a. If she had been there, John would have seen her. b. If she was there, John would have seen her. Are both sentences grammatically correct? Is there any difference in their meanings? Many thanks.Read More...
Hi, Azz—Prescriptively speaking, "were" should be used in the if -clause of (b). Apart from that, both sentences are grammatically correct; and, yes, they do differ in meaning. Sentence (a) concerns the past, and sentence (b) concerns the present. Consider that the adverbial "by now" could be naturally added to (b) (" If she were there, John would have seen her by now "), but not to (a) ( ?? " If she had been there, John would have seen her by now ").Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Other than + verb

1) Obama didn't really defend them on any grounds other than doing his part to placate the Republicans. (The New Yorker) 2) There is no alternative other than doing nothing and letting a patient die. (The New Yorker - science) Why other than + gerund-participle here? To the best of my knowledge, than, except etc are matrix licensed prepositions and the complements of these prepositions are licenced by some other elements in the matrix clause as in the sentence, I don't intend to do anything...Read More...
Unlike a normal preposition, other than can sometimes take a that -clause as complement: 1a) Obama didn't really defend them on any grounds other than that he was doing his part to placate the Republicans . It would be awkward, however, if not ungrammatical, to try use a that -clause after other than in (2). The difference between the two cases seems to lie in the difference in the noun to which other than relates and whether that noun can be specified by a that- clause and/or an infinitive...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

help with Grammar Test

Hi beautiful people! Could somebody help me with this grammar test? I know for someone it's pretty easy, but I'm beginner and it would be very helpful! Thank you in advance! :)Read More...
Hi, Amylase, and welcome to GE, No one can give you answers to all these questions. If you have a certain grammar question that may bother you, we will be happy to help.Read More...
Last Reply By ahmed_btm · First Unread Post

(The) use of articles in/with. (The) article use in/with

Hello! I'd like to know if I should use "the" in the noun phrases above. I was sure that we need no article before "use of articles/article use or usage in English" when speaking in general. But I've found an article about article usage entitled " The Use of Articles in English Writing ". Its subtitles, such as “Use of Articles in Science Writing” and “Use of Articles With Plural Nouns VS. Single Count Nouns," have no article. Why is it so? Is "the" necessary or optional in the title? Is...Read More...
Sorry for the confusion. I'll take note of your remark. Thank you for your help!Read More...
Last Reply By Alexey86 · First Unread Post
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