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Long since

What is the function of "since" in (1)? (1)They have long since disappeared I'm fine with the meaning. It's not a conjunction as in "I haven't seen her since last week". Apple .Read More...
Thanks to PromegaX for the dictionary information. The idiomatic phrase "long since" is equivalent to "a long time ago" or, with a past perfect or future perfect verb, "a long time previously." With stative or other durative verbs, it means "for a long time" (see below). The examples below are from Google. Here's an instance from Google of its use alone, without a verb or even a sentence: "” Berkowitz: This experiment is presumably over now, right? "” Newhouse: Yes. Long since. There's a...Read More...

It looks like rain.

What is the part of speech of"rain" in the following sentence (1)? (1) It looks like rain. Is it a noun? AppleRead More...
Used literally, the word "rain" is a noun: What's that on the window? "” It looks like rain Idiomatically, it could be perceived as a verb: "” It looks like [it's going to] rain. But the most likely part of speech is noun, since there can be other similar nouns in that position. Examples are from Google. "” Well just looked at the weather forecast for this weekend and it looks like thunderstorms Saturday and Sunday...not the best of camping conditions. "” Looking at the current weather...Read More...

'Deliver' or 'delivery'?

This question has been sent in by Soraya. I am really curious about signs that say: FREE DELIVER. Is this right? Shouldn't it say FREE DELIVERY? I couldn't find the word "deliver" as a noun, but only as a verb. I am correct?Read More...
The sign is not English. If it had the two words transposed it might make sense: "DELIVER FREE" ("We deliver free.") In this case the word "free" would be an adverb. It's possible that the signs are written by non-native speakers. The correct form is "FREE DELIVERY." Marilyn MartinRead More...

Antecedent in a nonrestrictive relative clause?

This post from Ananja was inadvertently removed from the board, and is herewith reposted. Marilyn Martin posted August 28, 2004 08:39 AM I've recently come across an interesting sentence from a news article. It says: Thailand had slaughtered 30 million birds, about the same number as Vietnam , where at least 14 people have died of bird flu and which reported two more cases of the disease. (Reuters) It seems to me that where and which share the same antecedent, Vietnam . What intrigues me is...Read More...
There's nothing anomalous about the sentence. It has an appositive ("about the same number as Vietnam") and a nonrestrictive relative clause modifying "Vietnam." An appositive is not a full nonrestrictive relative clause, although it can be considered a "reduced" nonrestrictive. The same applies to two or more nonrestrictives in a row, each modifying something in the previous one. There's no rule against using the last noun in a nonrestrictive relative clause "” or in an appositive, as in...Read More...

'In the grounds' or "on the grounds'

Hello everybody, Can I say, ˜He is somewhere IN the grounds' when grounds means land or gardens round a building? Can I use ON instead of IN? Thank you. Aneeth PrabhakarRead More...
Yes, you might say :He is somewhere in the grounds" referring to lands or gardens round a building, as in these examples from Google.: "¢ SCULPTURES in the grounds OF THE NATIONAL GALLERY OF AUSTRALIA. The front of the National Gallery of Australia, from the corner of ... rubens.anu.edu.au/student.projects/garden/nga.html – "¢ The Crystal Palace/ The Great Exhibition of 1851 ... Three-quarter size models of the parliament buildings of Empire and Commonwealth countries were erected in the...Read More...

It/I feel (like) the flu.

Hello, teachers! A. I'm not feeling all that well. / What do you have? / [____] B. I'm not feeling all that well. / What's wrong with you? / [____] Would you please tell me if these are all acceptable in the blanks? [Meaning; It seems I've got the flu.] 1. It feels like the flu. 2. It feels the flu. 3. I feel like the flu. 4. I feel the flu. Thank you very much. Best Regards.Read More...
In your first conversation, you could say: A: I'm not feeling all that well. B: What do you have? A: It feels like the flu. The other sentences listed do not quite fit. You might also say, however: A: I feel like I have the flu. Or A: I think I have the flu. The second sentence could be answered in this same way, with any of these responses: "It feels like the flu," I feel like I have the flu," or "I think I have the flu." The sentences "It feels the flue," I feel like the flu" and "I feel...Read More...

'Dreamed' or 'dreamt'

Last night I (dreamed/dreamt) that I was doing a century ride on my bike. What is the difference in usage between 'dreamed' and 'dreamt'?Read More...
The American Heritage Dictionary* lists the forms of dream like this: "¢ v., dreamed or dreamt (drÄ•mt), dream"¢ing, dreams. _______ Garner's Modern American Usage** has this entry: "¢ dream has the past-tense and past-participial forms dreamed and dreamt. In both cases, dreamed is slightly more common in American English, dreamt much more common in British English. _______ Practical English Usage*** notes the following differences in verb forms between British and American English: "¢ burn,...Read More...

compound noun or possessive "of"?

One of my students asked me to distinguish these sentences. But I'm unsure about the proper way to explain to them. Maybe experts here can give me a hand. 1. We're learning how to solve the computer problem 2. We're learning how to solve the problem of computer. 3. We're learning how to solve the problem for computer.Read More...
Sentence 1, with the phrase "the computer problem" is correct. The phrase "computer problem" refers to a problem (singular) involving one computer, a few computers, or several computer. The word "computer" modifies the noun "problem." All the examples below are from Google. "” American said it had to cancel about 100 flights on Monday as a result of the scheduling mess caused by the computer problem. "” In New Brunswick, about 10,000 public servants, including Premier Bernard Lord and...Read More...

'Left school' -- completed or not?

When you say someone left school, does that mean he graduated or he dropped out? We'd never know what level of education, would we? James left school in 1993. AppleRead More...
The available evidence is inconclusive. It suggests that in the U.K. "leave school" can mean the same as "graduate," or it can mean the opposite: "drop out of school without graduating." In the U.S. "leave school" does not imply graduation; it usually means not finishing all the requirements for a diploma. The more common term in the U.S. and Canada for leaving school before completing one's studies is "drop out (of school)." Dictionary sources are not consistent on the subject. For example,...Read More...

Preposition + '-ing' + '-ing' possible?

henrique
A friend of mine showed me a composition and asked me to confirm if it is possible to have the following statement: "in spite of my being having...". Is? it possibleRead More...
No, the sentence is not possible. You could use the possessive with the gerund form of "be" after the preposition "in spite of ," as in these sentences from Google: · ... In spite of my being a self-confessed Lord of the Rings obsessive, I did not think for a single moment of this film - what is Frodo doing here? ... · ... I had a great childhood and high school was great in spite of my being overweight, mainly because I am blessed with a great family and parents who truly love ... Or, you...Read More...

'Olympic Games' -- 'is' or 'are'?

I've heard 'the Olympic Games is/ has/ was,' as well as 'the Olympic Games are/ have/ were.' And, 'the Games is/has/was,' and 'the Games are/ have/were.' To complicate the matter, announcers have said 'Every Games....' 'Olympic Games' -- singular or plural? Thank you. HowardRead More...
The topic of the Olympic Games is very current. The Grammar Exchange responded to this very question – whether or not "Olympic Games" as subject takes a singular or plural verb – on June 30, 2004 (see that posting). The phrase "the Olympic Games" usually takes a plural verb, as in these examples from current news articles: "¢ The Olympic Games include nearly all the countries in the world, and competitors from all take part in many of the events. They all abide by the same rules. ... "¢ ...Read More...

'Check that...' or 'check whether'

Which one is correct? A) I want you to check that you have locked the door. B) I want you to check whether you have locked the door or not. Which one do you choose -- "that" or "whether"?Read More...
They're both correct, but "check THAT..." is different from "check WHETHER..." A very similar query was posted on June 30, 2004, about "check THAT vs. "check IF." "Check WHETHER" is a slightly more formal version of "check IF"; otherwise they mean the same thing. Here are Kis2337's query and the response: Hi! Good afternoon! I've got a question. Would you please answer it? Check that the landing area is safe. Can I use 'if' instead of 'that' in the sentence? THANKS A LOT! The expressions are...Read More...

What's their intent(ion)?

Yesterday, while waiting in line at my bank, I noticed a sign that read, "It is our intent to provide prompt access to funds deposited by customers." It got me to wondering: Could they have used intention instead of intent ? Is there a difference in meaning between the two words? Was their choice of words intentional?Read More...
PromegaX's instincts match this definition from the American Heritage*: in·ten·tion SYNONYMS intention, intent, purpose, goal, end, aim, object, objective. These nouns refer to what one plans to do or achieve. Intention simply signifies a course of action that one proposes to follow: It is my intention to take a vacation next month. Intent more strongly implies deliberateness: The executor complied with the testator's intent. Rachel _______ *The American Heritage Dictionary of the English...Read More...

'Sympathy' vs 'empathy'

I said to a friend today, "You have both my sympathy and my empathy." What is the difference in usage of the two words? Are they synonomous?Read More...
Below is what Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary says about this issue. ************************* SYMPATHY, COMPASSION, PITY, EMPATHY all denote the tendency, practice, or capacity to share in the feelings of others, especially their distress, sorrow, or unfulfilled desires. SYMPATHY is the broadest of these terms, signifying a general kinship with another's feelings, no matter of what kind: in sympathy with her yearning for peace and freedom; to extend sympathy to the bereaved.Read More...

'During' and 'in'

Sometimes "during" and "in" are interchangeable , and sometimes they are not. Which of the sentences are wrong and why? 1. I visited my aunt in Tokyo during the summer. 2. I visited my aunt in Tokyo in the summer. 3. We first met during the tour. 4. We first met on the tour. 5. I'll call you during the lunch time. 6. I'll call you at lunch time. AppleRead More...
Yes, Apple, you are correct. In 1, "during" indicates that he was sleeping for some time during the science class. There is no indication of how long he was sleeping, though. He may have been sleeping for a short time or for a long time. In 2, "throughout" means that he was sleeping without waking up even for a moment. _______ Here is one of the entries under "throughout" from the American Heritage Dictionary* : "¢ During the entire time or extent: Though unsure how her speech would be...Read More...

'I haven't done this for a long time' vs. 'I haven't been doing this for very long'

Hello, teachers! Would you please explain the difference in meaning between S1 and S2? I heard that S1 can mean both A and B but usually means A, and that S2 means B. Is it correct? [I don't understand this at all, and moreover this is very awkward, especially about S2.] S1. I haven't done this for a long time. S2. I haven't been doing this for very long. A. It has been a long time since I did this. B. It has not been a long time since I did this. Thank you very much. Best Regards.Read More...
You've been misinformed, unfortunately. Sentence 1 can be paraphrased with Sentence A, but Sentence 2 means something entirely different. The same can be said for Sentence B. Below are close paraphrases of the four sentences: S1. I haven't done this for a long time. = I did this a long time ago, but I haven't done it since that time. S2. I haven't been doing this for very long. = I'm currently doing this, but I started doing it only a little while ago A. It has been a long time since I did...Read More...

'Will' + 'have had'

Dear All, Please take a look at the following sentence from a novel : " Being 50 will be the hardest birthday I have had, mostly because I have grown fonder of the world the longer I've been in it. " Q : Is the part in bold correct grammatically ? I feel puzzled by it because "will" gives the impression of not having happened yet and "have had" gives the impression of having happened. Thank you. RickyRead More...
The present perfect in the sentence is acceptable. Following strict grammatical rules, the sentence would be "” Being 50 WILL BE the hardest birthday I WILL HAVE had,... Google examples with the future perfect include: "” "If this committee has a fraction of the impact that I hope it will have, it will be the most important thing I will have done as president," added Mr. Schoenfeld, an education professor at the University of California, Berkeley. "” If we stay healthy, this will be the most...Read More...

Tense - conditional; mixed or past unreal

Hello, teachers! In these sentences, I think both tenses are correct. Am I right? If so, which is the natural, everyday expression? 1. Did you watch yesterday's football match? / If I [had, had had] a TV, I would have watched it. 2. If I [were, had been] rich, I would have bought that sport car we saw yesterday. 3. If he [spoke, had spoken] English, he could have translated the letter for you. Thank you very much. Best Regards.Read More...
All the sentences are OK, but in informal speech and writing, it's more natural, albeit not as grammatically"accurate," to use the simple past in the if-clause of a hypothetical or contrary-to-fact past conditional. Since the simple past in the if-clause refers to a present condition, it is reasonable to assume that the condition applies to a recent past situation as well. The most natural forms are 1.... had a TV... 2.... were rich... 3.... spoke English... In everyday informal usage,...Read More...

Tense - Who had the tea?

Hello, teachers! Please look at this short dialog. [At a restaurant] Waiter; Who had the tea? Guest 1; Oh, she had the tea. Waiter; You had the tea? Guest 2; Yes. Waiter; Yeah. Tea for you, and coffee for you. Do you want cream and sugar? Guest 1; I'll take some cream. [Question 1] Why do the waiter use the past tense here; "Who had the tea?" [Question 2] Can we use other tenses instead? 1. Who is having the tea? 2. Who is going to have the tea? Thank you very much. Best Regards.Read More...
"Who had the tea?" is a common question waitpersons use to learn who ordered the tea. Perhaps using a past tense distances the actual request and sounds a bit more polite to the waitperson. However, the other options you mention – "Who is having the tea?" and "Who is going to have the tea?" – are also perfectly correct. RachelRead More...

'All day' vs. 'all the day'

Hello, teachers! Would you please explain the difference in meaning between using and not using 'the' in these sentences? 1. Lucy spent all [the] evening on the game. 2. Lucy spent all [the] day on the game. Thank you very much. Best Regards.Read More...
Both "all evening" and "all the evening" are correct, and both "all day" and "all the day" are correct. Both "all" and "all the" + a time expression have the same meaning: "all day/ all morning/ all week, etc.....through all of the day, the morning, the week, etc. -- use this especially when the day, morning, etc. has not finished yet: We've been traveling around all week / I haven't seen her all day – where is she ?"* _______ However, as you can see in the examples from Google, below, "the"...Read More...

Typing error-- 'has' or had'?

Dear All, Please take a look at the following : "My own sense of invulnerability is badly dented. Yes, against all the odds it HAD survived since my teenage years." Q: Is "HAD" correct or should it be "HAS" ? I feel "HAS" is the correct tense because his sense of invulnerablility is still there - it's only badly dented, not gone for good. Am I right ? Thank you. RickyRead More...
This is a revised version of my original post. It refines and reflects more accurately my concept of "anchor points." The revision is in the final paragraph. Without more context, the two sentences are indeed puzzling. The extended passage, which Ricky has kindly provided me, provides the missing clues. Here is the passage, with the previous two sentences and the following one as well: " Breaking my neck, particularly in the back of beyond in Bolivia, was a comprehensive demonstration of...Read More...

'On' or 'at' + 'folio'

Hello everybody, Which preposition is used in the following sentence, ˜on' or ˜at' ? The letter is put up _____ folio 124. (ie. in a file) Thank you. Aneeth PrabhakarRead More...
The Grammar Exchange was not able to find any information about "put up ____ folio" in any of its references in print or on the Internet. We also looked up "put up ____ the folio" and "put up _____ a folio." If the sentence means "The letter is filed _____ folio 124," we would probably say "The letter is filed IN folio 124." We did find a few examples on Google by looking for "folio number." There are 13 with "IN folio number," like this: "¢ ... I __ as owner of the above mentioned lands...Read More...

The pronunciation of 'Elizabeth II'

Hello, teachers! How do we pronounce 'Elizabeth II' in these sentences? Elizabeth two, second Elizabeth, the second Elizabeth, or Elizabeth the second? 1. Elizabeth II was crowned in 1953. 2. Queen Elizabeth II was crowned in 1953. And how do we pronounce 'the Menelik II Palace'? Thank you very much. Best Regards.Read More...
It's "Elizabeth the Second" and "Queen Elizabeth the Second." The numbers borne by rulers are pronounced as ordinal numerals. Thus we have Charles V/Charles the Fifth George III/George the Third Edward VII/Edward the Seventh Philip II/Philip the Second Louis XVI/Louis the Sixteenth The Merriam-Webster Dictionary Online at http://www.m-w.com/cgi-bin/dictionary gives this information about the name Menelik: Main Entry: Men·e·lik II Pronunciation: 'me-n &l-(")ik Function: biographical name...Read More...

Ships' names: 'the' with 'Elizabeth II,' 'Voyager'?

Hello, teachers! In front of the ship names 'Elizabeth II' & 'Voyager II'. do we need the definite article or not? 1. I travelled from England to New York on [the] Elizabeth II. 2. [The] Voyager II is leaving the solar system at 36,000 miles per hour. Thank you very much. Best Regards.Read More...
The Cunard Line*, owner of the ship, shows Queen Elizabeth 2 or QE2 , both without the definite article, as seen in this copy from its website: "¢ Still the only ship offering regularly scheduled transatlantic service, Queen Elizabeth 2 is also an honored guest in ports near and far. Sailing the world's waters, she becomes your glamorous refuge. To heighten this sense of occasion, QE2's 2003 season of transatlantic crossings will be her last. In 2004, QM2 takes up the reins while QE2 turns...Read More...

A position in a rock band and the definite article

Hello, teachers! - I'm in a rock band. I play [the] base/first guitar in a band called the Indians. Do we need 'the' here, or not? If we need it, is it a must or an option? Thank you very much. Best Regards.Read More...
When describing one's position in a musical group we usually omit the definite article THE. It's not wrong to use THE, but more often than not it's omitted. Google examples: plays the bass guitar in the band = 17 plays bass guitar in the band = 39 plays the drums in the band = 69 plays drums in the band = 250 For the string "plays [the] (* in the band" (where * stands for any word): plays the * in the band = 543 plays * in the band = 1,850 Marilyn MartinRead More...
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