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"Love That He Is"

Can I use the verb 'love' this way? I mean can 'love' be a intransitive verb? 1- I love that he is a very nice person.Read More...
Hi, Subhajit, "Love" is transitive above. Note that you can say I love it (with "it" referring to "his being a very nice person" or to "the fact that he is a very nice person"). In this thread you can read David's interesting comments about the grammaticality and idiomaticity of verbs of liking followed by "that"-clauses:Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

Is "sufficiently" redundant if I have "true"?

See bold: Remember also that this isn’t just a victory compared to Russian hopes—and Western fears—back in February. This is a colossal transformation in terms of the past 400 years of Russian domination of Ukraine—I don’t think the West sufficiently recognizes how significant this change is and the true extent of Ukraine’s victory and Russia’s defeat.Read More...
Hi, Andrew, I think you are thinking about "recognizing (or not recognizing) the truth." It is true that you either recognize it or you don't—you cannot sufficiently, or insufficiently, recognize it. However, in the sentence above "the true extent of" emphasizes the importance of the victory. "Sufficiently recognize the true extent of the victory" would be equivalent to "sufficiently realize the importance of the victory." Therefore, I don't find that combination redundant in logical or...Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

More badly or worse than

Dear editor, I would appreciate if you could tell us which of the following sentence is correct and why. Samy speaks French worse than he writes it. Samy speaks French more badly than he writes it. Thanks in advance. AtefRead More...
Hi, Atef, Please note that, even if we can work as editors elsewhere, our position here is not that of an editor You should use "worse," because in this case it is an adverb indicating poor quality. In Collins Dictionary we can read:Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

Parsing an Embedded Interrogative Clause

"You have no idea how worried mothers sound." The sentence above comes from Exercise 8 on p. 27 of Advanced English Grammar: A Linguistic Approach (Depraetere and Langford). Students are asked to identify the origin of the sentence's ambiguity through syntactic analysis. Would it be possible to see the syntax trees and the Reed-Kellogg diagrams associated with the above example?Read More...
Hi, MlleSim: I can barely diagram a simple sentence, let alone the Declaration. But since you asked me, let's take this sentence: "It became necessary for one people to dissolve the political bonds." To me, that means "It (for one people to dissolve the political bonds) became necessary." Yes, I also like Mr. Moutoux's website German-Latin-English.com . Have a nice weekend!Read More...
Last Reply By TheParser · First Unread Post

Run-ons

Hussein Hassan
Hi, there! The following question is excerpted from an ACT practice test. Vermeer is best known for portraying women in everyday domestic moments, showing t hem making lace, reading, or doing chores. This painting, however, centres on a male artist; critics believe represents Vermeer himself, as he paints a female model. NO CHANGE artist, critics artist. Critics artist critics The model answer says 4 is the right choice. Is it supposed to insert the pronoun "it" after the word "believe" to...Read More...
Hussein, (1) is correct, but (2) is not. The difference from: 3) This is the woman (who/that) Anna said could show us the church . lies in the fact that (3) contains a relative clause ( the woman (that) Anna said ) . The presence of a relative is required for the introductory reporting statement "Anna said" to be non-parenthetical, that is, for that part of the sentence not to be enclosed between commas. If commas are used, then the relative pronoun will be required: 4) This is the woman...Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

Sentence structure

Hussein Hassan
Good morning, all! The following question is excerpted from the EST ( The Egyptian Scholastic Test ) – June, 2022. The student will find it most convenient as well as cheapest to learn on small drawings rather than large ones, since they took less time to make and cost less for paper; (17) although they require more skill to make, they are preferable for the beginner , because he does not require to reach so far over the board, and furthermore, they teach him more quickly and effectively.Read More...
Appreciated, David!Read More...
Last Reply By Hussein Hassan · First Unread Post

no limitation on

Dear all: What does "no limitation on" mean in the following passage? It is from the book The East India Company in Persia by Peter Good, p. 102. Does it mean "not at all, never"? 'He added that requests to assist the Shah against his own subjects would be assented to whenever possible, though no limitation on whether these subjects recognised the Shah’s authority or not were discussed.' Thanks a million.Read More...
Thank a lot.Read More...
Last Reply By f6pafd · First Unread Post

glassy tideway

Dear all: What does "‘glassy tideway" mean in the following passage? It is from the book The East India Company in Persia by Peter Good, p. 154. The term "glassy" is used twice in this book, and for being more detailed, I will write both of them. I think it may mean "passive", but I am not sure. 'The chapters of this book have explored the important relationship between the East India Company and Persia through a period of significant, often volatile, change. Far from being a ‘glassy...Read More...

restricted to

Dear all: What is the exact meaning of "restricted to Western scholars" in the following passage? Does it mean "the scholarly finding of the Iranians is not accessible to the Western scholars"? or, Does it mean "only the Western scholars research on this subject matter"? "Sadly, access to Iranian scholarship on this subject is incredibly restricted to Western scholars , further limiting any investigation into other potential sources of information or data, not to mention Iranian...Read More...
Hello again, Pars—I was not parsing "restricted to" as a lexical or idiomatic unit in that sentence. As I parse "restricted" in that sentence, the "to" phrase can be separated from it and replaced with "for": "For them, access is restricted."Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Present simple

Hello. Could you please help me? Is the following sentence correct using "doesn't work"? - Nabil doesn't work today. He never works on fridays. Thank youRead More...
I agree with Ahmed_btm's answer. The main issue with saying "He doesn't work today" is that "today" is used. There is only one "today"; tomorrow's "today" will be a different "today" from today's "today," just as yesterday's "today" was. As sentences, both "He doesn't work today" and "He works today" work like "The plane departs at eight o'clock," and therefore require a context in which the event or non-event is desirably represented as institutionally scheduled. You could actually say: "...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Distributive Pronouns in the Possessive Case

Consider these examples: (1a) The bowl of each cat. → Each cat's bowl. (1b) The bowl of each child. → Each child's bowl. (1c) The bowl of each sheep. → Each sheep's bowl. Now consider the following: (2a) The bowl of each of the cats. → Each of the cats' bowl. (2b) The bowl of each of the children. → Each of the children's bowl. (2c) The bowl of each of the sheep. → Each of the sheep's bowl. I have two questions concerning (2a) – (2c): Firstly, are the constructions on the right side of the...Read More...
Interestingly, that sentence ("The son of Pharaoh's daughter was the daughter of Pharoah's son") has a fourfold syntactic ambiguity. On two of its grammatical parsings, it is a tautology: "The son was the son"; "The daughter was the daughter." On the other two grammatical parsings, it is a contradiction: "The son was the daughter"; "The daughter was the son."Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Can you say "membership of"? As opposed to "membership in"?

See here: A long-term ceasefire along the existing lines would leave 85% of Ukraine free to do its best to move—with Western help—towards membership of the European Union.Read More...
Hi, Andrew—I believe you need "in" there. My understanding is that membership in a group means being in the group, whereas the membership of a group (a group's membership) refers to the members constituting the group.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Can you say "suffering for"?

See below ("suffering from" sounds better to me personally, but I'm not sure about what's correct in this particular context): I also think he cares about the wider issues at stake, including the solidarity of the Western alliance—there are already fairly strong indications that the Europeans are increasingly aware that they’re suffering economically for this war and that America is profiting from it rather handsomely.Read More...
I like "suffering from," especially with its parallelism to "profiting from."Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Relative clause

Hi, ''I have three employees in my office. Their pay is more than I afford.'' This means I have three employees in my office.......more than I can afford.'' a- where I pay b- whose pay is I think (a) is correct. (b) isn't correct because the relative pronoun ''whose'' must come immediately after ''emplyees''Read More...
Do you mean it should be as following: ''I have three employees, in my office, whose pay I can't afford.''Read More...
Last Reply By Ahmed.A.A · First Unread Post

Redundant words

Hi there, friends. [...] and invite him to go along with you. Is to go and with you redundant in the text above? Would ' [...] and invite him along ' suffice? Many thanks.Read More...
I have doubts…! After all, the version without "before" has the very same meaning. You emphasise "never until now ", but would "never" alone not also imply the time up until the present moment? That is why I added the comment about time travel… because its possibility (that is, the possibility of time travel) would make the use of "before" more "logical" if not necessary ("never" alone encompassing both the past and future and "never before" suggesting a possible future knowledge of the...Read More...
Last Reply By MlleSim · First Unread Post

Hyphen

Hi, Why is ''home-sick'' hyphenated? The following sentence is in a Longman text in a school book: ''I was a little home-sick.'' I have looked this word up in more than a dictionary (Cambridge, Webster, Longman, Collins and Oxford), but it does not have a hyphen. So how come?Read More...
Thanks a lot GustavoRead More...
Last Reply By Ahmed.A.A · First Unread Post

Is a comma absolutely necessary here?

See the bold: And within Koso vo, th ere’s a de facto border between Mitrovica in the north—which is de facto part of Serbia to a great extent—and the other 90% of Kosovo. Consider the following potential ways to the start the sentence: (1) Within Kosovo, (2) And within Kosovo, (3) In Kosovo, (4) And in Kosovo, I would probably not use a comma for (1) or (3), so what about (2) and (4)? What (if anything) makes (2) and (4) different?Read More...
In her book, the best punctuation book, period, June Casagrande says, "With short prepositional phrases, the writer’s preference and intended rhythm are the main factors in deciding whether to use a comma."Read More...
Last Reply By ahmed_btm · First Unread Post

Past perfect or past simple

"So quietly did the mowing of the old scythe go on, that fully three months had passed unnoticed since the two English brothers had been laid in one tomb in the strangers’ cemetery at Rome." (Little Dorrit by Charles Dickens) Can 'had been laid' be replaced by 'were laid' without a change in meaning? ThanksRead More...
Hello, David, I think the past perfect after "since" is required because the action or event that follows was previous both to the mowing and to the passage of the three-month period (actually, these two were simultaneous). When backshifting a sentence containing "since," both the present perfect and the past simple need to be turned into the past perfect.Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

Distinguishing Between a Gerund and a Present Participle

Why is it that the "drinking" in (a) constitutes a gerund whilst the "drinking" in (b) constitutes a present participle? (a) "He admitted drinking behind the wheel." (b) "She saw him drinking behind the wheel." Is it incorrect to say that both are acting as direct objects?Read More...
Thank you, MlleSim, for the extended article you shared. It looks really exhaustive!Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

Whatever

Is there any difference? 1- Whatever he does, I do it better. (Should I use it?) 2- Do whatever makes you happy. 3- Whatever makes you happy, do it. ( Should I use it?)Read More...
Interesting question, subhajit. I think the answer depends on the function of "whatever": if it has concessive meaning, it introduces an adverbial clause; if it is an emphatic form of "what," it introduces a nominal clause. I think "whatever he does" in (1) is a nominal clause, equivalent to "anything he does." Therefore, I don't think "it" is necessary: 1a. Whatever he does, I do better. (Anything he does, I do better.) (These are variants of: I do whatever/anything he does better.)...Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

Took a/the risk/risks

Which one is correct? 1- I took a risk to save my friend's life. 2- I took the risk to save my friend's life. 3- I took risks to save my friend's life. 4- I took the risks to save my friend's life.Read More...
Hi, subhajit, (1) means "I" took a certain risk. (2) means "I" took the risk inherent to saving the speaker's friend's life. (3) means "I" took some risks. (4) can only be correct if it is clear from the context that certain risks were involved in undertaking that mission. The most idiomatic of all is (2), "take the risk to do something."Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

Are these sentence equal in meaning

-If she gets a high mark she will be awarded a prize -In case of getting a high mark, she will be awarded a prize -By getting a high mark she will be awarded a prize -with getting a high mark she will be awarded a prize Are they equal in meaningRead More...
Hello, Mohamed Saad, and welcome to the Grammar Exchange. I will number your sentences for ease of reference: Remember that all statements should be closed by a period (I have added them for you). The only correct sentence is (1), which, as you must know, expresses condition. To sound idiomatic, "in case of" needs to be followed by a noun, for example: - In case of success, she will be awarded a prize. (3) and (4) do not sound quite right ((4) is worse than (3)). "By + V-ing" can be used to...Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post
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