Questions and Answers

such as

1) Great novelists such as Joyce and Faulkner used the interior monologue. 2) Great novelists like Joyce and Faulkner used the interior monologue. 3) Great novelists, such as Joyce and Faulkner, used the interior monologue. 4) Great novelists, like Joyce and Faulkner, used the interior monologue. Do the first pair mean the same as the second pair? Gratefully, NaviRead More...

Present perfect

What is the right answer : Nothing like this (happened - has happened - has ever happened - has never happened) to her.Read More...
Hello, Emad, I agree with Ahmed_btm that "has ever happened" is a very natural choice, and it is probably the answer that the test makers would like you to choose. However, there is only one incorrect (ungrammatical) answer in the answer set, and that is "has never happened": Nothing like this happened to her. (correct in a suitable context) Nothing like this has happened to her. (correct in a suitable context) Nothing like this has ever happened to her. (correct and very natural) * Nothing...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Simplify past perfect to simple past in a type 3 conditional?

“The Daily News observed that there was no doubt as to the crime being a political one. The despotism and hatred of Liberalism which animated the Continental Governments had had the effect of driving to our shores a number of men who might have made excellent citizens were they not soured by the recollection of all that they had undergone.” A Study in Scarlet Hi. Does the bold part refer to the past, so the bold part is equivalent to “ had they not been soured...”? In other words, it is a...Read More...

I have made up [an/the] example below.

Suppose that you are giving a Powerpoint presentation on the relationship between addition and multiplication using your computer. You are now showing the next slide with an example. You are going to say this next. (1a) To show this relationship, I have made up an example below. 4 x 3 = 4 + 4 + 4 My non-native English speaking friends think the indefinite article is wrong because I am talking about the specific example below. So, they revised it to make (1b) below. (1b) To show this...Read More...
Nice analysis, Gustavo. I agree with everything you have said and would simply like to add that another natural way of saying "I have made up the example below " is to say "I have made up the following example ." Right here on the Grammar Exchange, I have written sentences like "Please consider the following example" probably thousands of times. Ansonman, if you really want to use "an," you could say: I have made up an example, namely, the example that appears below. But there is no need for...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Hyphen question

Which is correct? ”Fill out the department-requested form.” or ”Fill out the department requested form.”Read More...
Hello, JenH, and welcome to the Grammar Exchange! The pattern agent + past participle is only used in English when the agent is a generic, plural noun, as in: - moth-eaten clothes (clothes eaten by moths ) or an institutional, singular noun (of which there is only one of the kind), as in: - state-owned company (company owned by the state ). The noun "department" does not belong to either of those categories. I'd express the sentence you propose as follows: - Fill out the form as requested by...Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Contributor · First Unread Post

placement of an adjective in "a piece of paper"

I have made up a few similar examples. I am going to write them out below. (1a) I am going to take some notes. May I borrow a scrap piece of paper from you? (1b) I am going to take some notes. May I borrow a piece of scrap paper from you? (2a) I am going to take a lot of notes. May I borrow a large piece of paper from you? (2b) I am going to take a lot of notes. May I borrow a piece of large paper from you? My non-native English speaking friends cannot help me because they are not sure.Read More...

disagreement

Hi everyone, I want to ask how a native English-speaker agree/disagree on a idea both in formal or casual ? For example I have found that "Go along with something" is a way to support an idea. In addition, it would be great if you introduce me a reference in order to find collocation. Thanks in advance,Read More...
Hi, Leonard-Jones, Please see if this can be of help.Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Contributor · First Unread Post

Which sentence is correct?

ceedhanna
(1) His Military Service is done in the Army Forces on 1 st March 2008. (2) His Military Service was done in the Army Forces on 1 st March 2008 and is it possible to say: (3) His Military Service has been done in the Army Forces on 1 st March 2008. ThanksRead More...
No, Hussein, you may leave your reply, but please note that your judgement that "Sentence NO. (1) is definitely correct" is right only if we suppose that the time at which the sentence is uttered or written is not now but before March of 2008 . That is an unusual context. On an grammar test, a student could not be expected to make such an assumption on his or her own. Thus, if this is a testing item, and there is no such contextual stipulation built into the question, (1) is incorrect.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

very meta

The following is part of the conversation between a detective and Nick in the movei Gone Girl: Detective: “What do you do now for work?” Nick: “My sister and I own The Bar downtown.” Detective: “Oh, The Bar? Love the name. Very meta.” Nick: “Thanks.” What does "very meta" mean?Read More...
Hi, Fujibei, "Meta" is being used in a rather informal, somewhat regional sense there. The OED does, however, have an entry for "meta" (adjective) in the applicable sense. Have you ever heard of a "meta-analysis"? In the academic world, it is an analysis of analyses, or a study of studies. In TESOL, we often talk about the need to minimize the use of "meta-language" -- i.e., grammatical terminology, language about language -- in our explanations. In your quote, something similar is...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

last

Please, Could you tell me if it is correct or not? It was the last time for me to go to work by bus.Read More...
Hello, Abo Hamza, No, that sentence is not correct. Are you trying to express one of these ideas? It was the last time I would go to work by bus. It was the last time I could go to work by bus. It was the last time I went to work by bus. If so, you should revise the sentence accordingly.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Surprised vs taken aback

This question has bothered me for years, and every so often I look around online for the/an answer but I always come up empty handed. In the Coen brothers movie The Ladykillers with Tom Hanks, there is the following exchange of dialogue: Marva Munson: [walking in after the explosion in the basement] Professor, I'm surprised! Professor G.H. Dorr: Well... uh... properly speaking, madam, we are surprised. You are taken aback. Though I do acknowledge that the sense that you intend is gaining...Read More...

In front of VS opposite

Hussein Hassan
Hello, there, Michael Swan in his book "Practical English Usage" says that we can't use "in front of" in the following context: There's a garage in front of my house. And he suggested using "opposite," "facing" or "across from" instead. I just imagined that I was living in a gated community or in a senior gated community, or suppose that I was living alone in an isolated area, owning a private garage in front of my house. See! It seems natural.😁 Why does Swan say we can't use "in front of"...Read More...
Thank you.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

the old people

One person says: "In our city, a lot of people go to parks." Another replies: 1 ) It's old people who do. 2) It's the old people who do. 3 ) Old people go to parks. 4 ) The old people go to parks. Are these sentences all acceptable in this context? Do they have different meanings in this context? Do '2' and '4' imply that all of them go to parks? Gratefully, NaviRead More...
Thank you very much, David, With all due respect, I beg to differ! It might be a very friendly reply, for at the end of the day it implies that the people of your city have a high average life expectancy!!!! Thanks again for all the clear and precise replies. I really appreciate it. Respectfully, NaviRead More...
Last Reply By navi · First Unread Post

If John F. Kennedy <was>/<had been> alive, he would have turned 100 today.

Context 1: Suppose today is May 29, 2017 1. If John F. Kennedy was alive, he would have turned 100 today. 2. If John F. Kennedy had been alive, he would have turned 100 today. Context 2: Today is Aug 14,2019 3. If John F. Kennedy was alive, he would have turned 103 next year. 4. If John F. Kennedy had been alive, he would have turned 103 next year. Hi. Are all the above four sentences correct in the context? I make them up. Thank you.Read More...
When we transitioned to this new platform, a little over a year ago, I requested that the programmers disable the "like" function, so that there wouldn't be the sense of a popularity contest, comparable to Facebook and some other grammar sites. We prefer that members express their appreciation in words. Thank you.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Discerning between??

I've just read 'Discerning among clinical symptoms'. I know there are rules for the use of among and between (between - distinct entities; among - not individually specified), but between seems correct in this case? Would it always be 'discerning between'? Thanks for your help!!!Read More...
Hello, Joho, and welcome to the Grammar Exchange! The general rule is to use "between" when there are two things or people involved and "among" when there are more than two. However, if there are more than two things or people involved, "between" may still be used if the many countable things are thought of as being related in pairs. That applies here. In distinguishing between symptoms, we compare one type of symptom with another. That is why "distinguish between symptoms" works well.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

I couldn't believe

a. They made an mistake I couldn't believe. b. They made an error I couldn't believe they had made. c. They made an error I couldn't believe they had made it. Which of the above sentences are grammatically correct? Many thanksRead More...
Hi, Azz, Please note you made a typo in (a), where you wrote "They made a n mistake... " After making that correction, I think (a) and (b) are fine: in (a), you couldn't believe the mistake they made, while in (b) you couldn't believe their having made that mistake, i.e. the fact that they made it. (c) is wrong because there is a duplication of the object: c. They made an error (that) I couldn't believe they had made it .Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Contributor · First Unread Post

Briefly discuss vs Discuss briefly

May I know which of the sentence below is appropriate? (1) Briefly describe the characteristics of a perfectly competitive firm. (2) Describe briefly the characteristics of a perfectly competitive firmRead More...
Hi, Joshua: In (1) and (2), the direct object of "describe" is the noun phrase "the characteristics of a perfectly competitive firm." Normally, we do not place an adverb, such as "briefly," between a verb and its direct object. Therefore (1) is better than (2); it is more advisable to use (1), because "briefly" does not come between "describe" and its direct object in that sentence.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

'What' vs 'whatever'

Are both the following sentence using what and whatever correct? If yes, what different do they mean? John, whatever you did in the party last night was very wrong. John, what you did in the party last night was very wrong.Read More...
I agree with Gustavo. Please note the change from " in the party" to " at the party."Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Grammar

Phone me after 2pm. I .....lunch by then. Will have Will be having Will have had am having Key answer : will be having Excuse me can you please explain why " will have had " is incorrect.Read More...
Many thanks for your help. في الاثنين، ١٢ أغسطس، ٢٠١٩ ٢:١٤ م The Grammar Exchange < alerts@hoop.la > كتب:Read More...
Last Reply By Muhammad · First Unread Post

what; whichever

Psychological studies have shown that people in group situations tend to agree with _____ opinion they think has the most support. a. what b. whichever This is from a grammar book. I think both are correct, but the book says only 'b' is. Could you explain some? Thanks!Read More...
Hi, Kis, Yes, only "whichever" is possible there. "which(ever)" is required whenever the range of selection is restricted, and this is clearly the case because of the superlative (of all the opinions stated, there is one that has the most support): - People in group situations tend to agree with whichever opinion they think has the most support. "what" will only be accompanied by a noun in questions (direct or embedded). "whatever" may appear with a noun in any kind of sentence, albeit in a...Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Contributor · First Unread Post

"not" in a series?

Here's the original sentence: "Any child not picked up or allowed to walk home on their own prior to the conclusion of the program will be considered unattended." This is what was meant: "Any child not 1) picked up or 2) allowed to walk home on their own prior to the conclusion of the program will be considered unattended." But I think it should have been written like this... "Any child not picked up or not allowed to walk home on their own prior to the conclusion of the program will be...Read More...
Hello, Dave, and welcome to the Grammar Exchange! As the sentence is written, it is indeed ambiguous: we can't tell whether "allowed" falls under the scope of "not." In other words, we can't tell whether "or allowed to walk home" refers to a child who is not allowed to walk home or to one who is allowed to walk home. One way to disambiguate the sentence is the way you have suggested. You can repeat the word "not" before "allowed." Another way you could disambiguate the sentence is by...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

garden path sentence

Hello, contributors "Ask people which of these four crosses they like best". Q1. I wonder if the sentence above can be considered as a garden path sentence. It is difficult for me to parse, whether a) Ask people which of these four crosses / they like best, or b) Ask people / which of these four crosses they like best. Q2. Do native speakears usually use such complex sentence in their speaking or informal writing?Read More...
Hello again, Jiho, That is not a possible reading. You cannot add "that" or "which" there. If "they like best" were a relative clause, the sentence would be ungrammatical. * " Ask people which of them " does not work. That is what your would-be reading implies. So your would-be reading is wrong. If you wish to understand the sentence, please refer to my first reply.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Brokerage Way Corp..... is any issue here? How does it look for native?

Hello all! I'm not a native English speaking person so want to know is any problems or issue to hearing, reading and understanding. Don't want to say it should mean - "The way of brokerage", just is does it beat you when you see company with name: Brokerage Way Corp ? Huge hugs and thank you for answers! Best, SergRead More...
Hi, Serg, and welcome to the Grammar Exchange! Unfortunately, everything you have written in your post is filled with grammatical errors, and it is very difficult to decipher the question that you are trying to ask. Best wishes in your English studies!Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Simple or complex sentence

"Based on the well-documented experiences of contemporary peers as well as those of past figures in the political arena, many of whom saw their professional reputations and their personal lives deeply and negatively affected as a consequence of releasing their own memoirs upon completing their tenures in leading public positions, the newly retired four-star general, whom, at his farewell press conference, the president himself had taken the time to praise as his most valuable asset in his...Read More...
What else could the nonrestrictive clauses be dependent on? Is your view that they are dependent on something that is not present in the sentence? Or is it rather that they are not dependent clauses at all? Presumably, there are only two choices: dependent or independent. If they are not dependent clauses, they must be independent clauses, capable of being stand-alone sentences unto themselves. Do you find these to be sentences? Many of whom saw their professional reputations and their...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

involved

Hello everyone, 1. What is a project team and who all are involved ? souece: https://www.invensislearning.c...who-all-are-involved I think "involved" here means "committed or engaged": The civil rights demonstration attracted the involved young people of the area. 2. The trouble was, however, that it was so concerned and involved and relevant and all together and right-on. — Cleveland Amory, TV Guide, 13 Mar. 1971 I think "involved" here means "complicated" Now my question, ... Pro: Exactly!Read More...

what or where

Hello, 1.What are you watching? I’m watching a horror movie . 2.Where are you working? I’m working in my office. 3.Where are you cleaning? I’m cleaning the kitchen In order to find out the underlined part, we use a question word. In sentences 1,”a horror movie” is the object of the sentence and a question word “What” works fine. In sentence 2,” in my office” is not the object but a modifier, telling the asker the place where I’m working, so a question word “where” is OK. What about sentences...Read More...
Thank you, always, David. AppleRead More...
Last Reply By apple · First Unread Post

Is this Correct?

It's a door hanger that will be placed on the door knobs around an Open House that we're doing. Is it Neighbors' Open House or Neighbor's Open House or Neighbors Open House? HELPRead More...
Hi, JSlotnick, and welcome to the Grammar Exchange! An open house for one neighbor is a neighbor's open house. An open house for more than one neighbor is your neighbors' open house. In the context you've described, I recommend " neighborhood open house ."Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

when available

A: We need to have dinner together sometime. B: I agree, but I don't know ________. a. when available b. when I'll be available Are they both correct? Thank!Read More...
Hi, Kis, Only (b) is correct. Embedded or indirect questions cannot be reduced. Such reduction can only take place when the clause functions as an adverbial, for example: - Come when available (= Come when you are available).Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Contributor · First Unread Post

is wanting

Hello, At the 2019 Wimbledon men's singles final match between Federer and Djocovic, one of the two commentators said "seems like Federer is wanting to finish more and more points at the net". I was taught "want" was one of the verbs that was not usually used in a present progressive form. Is this an exceptional situation? Did the commentator mean to emphasize the strong passion that Federer had of finishing points at the net? AppleRead More...
Hi, Apple, The usage of the progressive with "want" ("is wanting to") is indeed abnormal. However, it does sometimes occur in conversational discourse, including between commentators in news broadcasts. The effect of using "is wanting" here is that it makes the statement informal, tentative, and confined to the ongoing present. It suggests temporariness. Compare: "I am loving the class" (temporary) vs. "I love the class" (fixed state). I would never teach this usage of "is wanting" to...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

who do that

A says: Some people jog in our neighborhood late at night. B replies: a. Those are young people. b. That is young people. c. It is young people. d. Those are young people who do that. e. That is young people who do that. f. It is young people who do that/ g. They are young people who do that. Which of the sentences a-f are grammatically correct in this context? Many thanksRead More...
Hi, Azz, I only find (a) and (f) to be grammatically correct. While in (a) "those" refers to the people the other peson mentioned (the ones who jog in the neighborhood late at night), (f) is a cleft sentence used for emphasis. I think (b) would be possible with a comma: b'. That is, young people ("that is" has a reformulatory value and is used to correct the other speaker's claim: not any kind of people, but only those who are young).Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Contributor · First Unread Post

Correct or not?

Correct or not? This is the first time for her to visit London.Read More...
Hi, Abo Hamza, Your question sounds somewhat imperative, as if you were saying: Tell me: is it correct or not? which I hope was not your intention. Next time, it'd be better for you to use a more polite formula, like: Could you (please) tell me if this is correct? In answer to your question, although this sentence: is correct, these others would perhaps be more idiomatic and natural: - This is her first time to visit London. - This is the first time she's visited London. - This is the first...Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Contributor · First Unread Post

Would you like A (,)or B? Do we need a comma?

Hello, 1. Would you like tea or coffee? (rising intonation) 2. Would you like tea(rising intonation) or coffee (falling intonation) When spoken, sentence 1 asks if you want something to drink, like tea or coffee, so you answer by yes or no. When the speaker raises the intonation after "tea" and brings it down after coffee, he is asking which beverage you want, tea or coffee, so you tell him your preference. When this sentence is in a written form and you want to know the preference, you need...Read More...
Thank you, David. appleRead More...
Last Reply By apple · First Unread Post

predicate adjective?

When is an adjective not an adjective? I came across this quiz on intransitive linking verbs. “The meal tasted wonderful to everyone.” Tasted being the linking verb, linking wonderful to meal. As wonderful is an adjective, I presumed wonderful would be a predicate adjective. The correct answer is that wonderful is a predicate nominative? As a predicate nominative is a noun, I am a little confused. Would you please give me an explanation. Link question three. ...Read More...
Thank you all for taking the time to answer my questions. I think there may be some ambiguity in the quiz. Once again, many thanks.Read More...
Last Reply By Raymond. · First Unread Post

Fewest or least

1- "This book has the fewest number of pages." 2- "The tour guide said that ten is the least number of tourists she can take on the boat trip." These two sentences are taken from a school book taught to 3rd year preparatory in Egypt. I think the first sentence is OK but I am confused why the second sentence contains "least" not "fewest" PS: "English Grammar Usage"Read More...
Hi, Mr P., Generally, we do not speak of " the fewest number of " or " the least number of ," just as we don't speak of " the most number of "; rather, we refer to " the smallest number of " and the " the largest number of ." Let's revise the textbook sentences: 1a) This book has the smallest number of pages . 2a) The tour guide said that ten is the smallest number of tourists she can take on the boat trip. Some people feel it is incorrect to use "least" with count nouns, that "least" should...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Which hotel are you staying (in/at)?

Hello, Which hotel are you staying? Do you need "at" or "in" at the end of the sentence above? We cannot say " I'm staying Hilton" so, technically, we need a preposition "in" or "at", but do you say the sentence in question in a daily conversation without a preposition? I think I've heard it said without, but I'm not sure if it's grammatically acceptable. AppleRead More...
Thank you, David. Your reply always confirms my opinion or sometimes makes me realize my wrong perception or mistakes. AppleRead More...
Last Reply By apple · First Unread Post

Namesake

ahmad
Hello, everyone, Of a mistake arising out of similarity in name(s), can one qualify it with namesake as in the following? 1. The mistake was namesake in nature. 2. The mistake’s nature was namesake. Thanks.Read More...
Hello, Ahmad, Unfortunately, "namesake" does not work at all in those two sentences. "Namesake" is used in an entirely different way. Generally, a namesake is the name of the person in honor of whom something else is named. Thus, Betty Azar is the namesake of Azar Grammar Exchange. In your sentences, you could use "nominal" for the meaning you want. One definition of "nominal" is "of or relating to names (in distinction to things)" ( OED ): 1a. The mistake was nominal in nature. 2a. The...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Question vs Questions

If it is one page examination paper, which is consists of few question, which of the following sentence is appropriate. (1) This examination paper consists of one page of question . (2) This examination paper consist of one page of questions .Read More...
Thanks Capt (Rtd) Joshua Loo On Friday, 2 August 2019, 05:04:10 pm GMT+8, The Grammar Exchange < alerts@hoop.la > wrote: Reply By David, Moderator: Question vs Questions | == To reply by email, write above this line. == | | | | | Hello, joshua: We're sending you this notification because you are either following the forum, the content, or the author listed below. New Reply To Topic | Subject: Question vs Questions Reply By: David, Moderator In: | | joshua posted: If it is one page...Read More...
Last Reply By joshua · First Unread Post

Grammatical errors

Hello, "Unlike the USA, people in Canada and other counties are not allowed to use guns." I wonder which part is ungrammatical. I don't know the source of the sentence and it was a testing item from my grammar class. Does it have an error? Thanks.Read More...
Hi, Jiho, You are not comparing the countries, but their inhabitants. The countries should be referred to as the locations where different behaviors are reported, not as the elements being compared. I think the sentence could be fixed by saying: - Unlike (people) in the USA, people in Canada and other counties are not allowed to use guns. - Unlike what happens in the USA, people in Canada and other counties are not allowed to use guns.Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Contributor · First Unread Post

You'd be better doing something

Hussein Hassan
Hello, there. Hope that all of you are fine. Is it grammatically right to say: You' d be better stopping smoking. I know some alternatives can be used instead, but I'm just wondering whether the phrase of "You'd be better doing something" in the context above was used correctly or not? Many thanks...Read More...
Thanks a lot, Gustavo and David for the information you've provided. Really interesting and helpful especially, the difference between "quit" and "stop". So, for this reason we say for example: "stop crying", but can't say "quit crying".Read More...
Last Reply By Hussein Hassan · First Unread Post

But

Hi everyone I want to know the role of "But" in these examples. -"Truth is but a bitter pill to swallow, but it is still the best medicine ever. " Is it equivalent to this sentence? Although truth is a bitter pill to swallow, it is still the best medicine ever. I should mention that I do not understand the role of first "But" in the sentence. The second example is here -" We should always remember that one does not loose but telling the truth, but only when he/she holds back. " is this,...Read More...
Thank you so much Because I had really been confused. The more I looked for it, the less I found it. I have taken these examples from " Sample Essays for the TOEFL ".Read More...
Last Reply By Leonard-Jones · First Unread Post

Day/Date

ahmad
Hello, everyone, 1. He visited his family on June 3, 2017, and died on the same day next year. 2. He visited his family on June 3, 2017, and died the same day next year. 3. He visited his family on June 3, 2017, and died the same date next year. 4. He visited his family on June 3, 2017, and died on the same date next year. Which of the above sentences are correct or preferable? Thanks. PS: Sameness on the one hand and ever passing nature of time on the other make me feel a tad uncomfortable.Read More...
Thanks, sir.Read More...
Last Reply By ahmad · First Unread Post

lit up by/with?

Would anyone like to chime in? The night sky was lit up with fireworks. OR The night sky was lit up by fireworks. much thanksRead More...
Hi, Perriced, Before answering your question, I'd like to make two corrections: 1. "chime in" is used when someone says something in the middle of a conversation, so it doesn't seem to be the right phrasal to start a thread. Such an invitation could be made in the middle of the thread, when there have already been some replies and you want somebody else to take part in the discussion. 2. "thanks" is plural, so you should say " many thanks." Now, in answer to your question, both sentences: a.Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Contributor · First Unread Post

apart from

1 ) Apart from my marital life, I have a lot to be grateful for. 2 ) Apart from my marital life, there is a lot I am grateful for. According to these sentences, is my marital life something I am grateful for or not? Gratefully NaviRead More...
Hello, Navi, No, I would not say that "besides" is just as ambiguous as "apart from" there; it clearly has the "in addition to" meaning. However, unless it is supported by something like "other things" ("I have a lot of other things to be grateful for"), I do find the "besides"-phrase awkward in initial position, precisely because it seems as if the writer imagines it has the other meaning. It works better at the end, especially with the addition of a comma and "too": 1a') I have a lot to be...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

fixed income

Hi, A: How about you hire a gardener to take care of that jungle you call a lawn? B: I'm on a fixed income. What does "be on a fixed income" mean? Thanks a lot.Read More...
Hi, Kuen: "Fixed income" has an economic definition that you can easily Google. By replying "I'm on a fixed income," Speaker B means to imply that his or her income cannot be increased to accommodate the expense of hiring a gardener. Speaker B's reply is a convoluted way of saying, "I can't afford to do that."Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

"notwithstanding" & richer that portrayed

What is the meaning of "notwithstanding" and " richer that portrayed" in the sentence below? These research studies and analyses notwithstanding , the view of communication as transmission is much richer than portrayed here. Bruce, B. C., Connell, J., Higgins, C., & Mahoney, J. T. (2011). The discourse of management and the management of discourse. International Journal of Strategic Change Management .Read More...
Hi, Joshua, "These research studies and analyses notwithstanding " means the same thing as " Notwithstanding these research studies and analyses," which means the same thing as " In spite of these research studies and analyses." In "richer than portrayed here," "portrayed here" is a truncated comparative clause. The meaning is that "the view of communication as transmission is much richer than it is portrayed as being here."Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post
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