Questions and Answers

Definite or indefinite article

Hi there, What article would you use in the following sentence: The earth revolves around the sun at a (or the) rate 365 1/4 days per year. I think both the options are possible. Am I wrong? Thank you in advance for your help.Read More...
Hi, Eternal Hope, I would revise the entire sentence: The earth revolves around the sun every 365 1/4 days.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Where are the replies to old posts?

I've searched the forum for a topic that I've posted before but I can't view the reply. How can I view the replies? An example is the post with the title "Past" At 8:30 yesterday, we were watching TV. I usually see the past cont. used in this sentence and similar ones and I wonder why the past simple is not used. At 8:30 yesterday, we watched TV.Read More...
Here you go, Rasha. Two replies are associated with this thread: Gustavo's excellent answer and your thank-you note to him. For the sake of thoroughness, I am quoting both posts and showing you everything I see on my end. If any member reading this has any idea what "CONTENT TYPE RECIPE CONDITION" might mean, please share your thoughts. That is the category under which all the posts that went "missing" in the transplant are listed. To reiterate, I have reason to believe that "Approve Reply"...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

out

What does it mean? out Eg: In the evening when the school was out, two strangers at the school gate greeted Peter.Read More...
Please! Is it possible to leave Alice Cooper's classic rock anthem "School's Out" (1972) out of this discussion? "School's Out" by Alice Cooper I agree with David, that "out", when referring to school, usually means that there is a holiday break, but it can also simply refer to the end of the day, as in your example. Of course, in the context of the song, "out" can mean "out of fashion", or "unpopular". Bear_bear, you surely have access to a dictionary that can advise you of many meanings of...Read More...
Last Reply By Doc V · First Unread Post

all honey and no sting

Could you tell me the meaning and example of the idiom - all honey and no sting? Even I search through the Internet, but I failed to get the meaning. Thanks.Read More...
I've never heard "all honey and no sting," bear_bear, but it's clearly a reference to bees. Bees make honey (which is good from the standpoint of customary human perception), and bees sting (which is bad from the standpoint of customary human perception). Thus, if someone were said to be all honey and no sting, the idea would be that she is sweet and kind and never causes anyone any harm. Here is a related idiom which is much more common: "all bark and no bite."Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

a moment that wasn't

The headline of a CNN news of August 11 reads, "In Trump's White House, Charlottesville was a moment that wasn't." What does "Charlottesville was a moment that wasn't" mean?Read More...
Hi, Fujibei: I find the headline extremely unclear with the contraction of "was" and "not" ("wasn't"). I believe that the intended meaning is the one that would stand out if "was" and "not" were not contracted and if "was" were stressed: In Trump's White House, Charlottesville was a moment that was not I think that the simple past-tense form of "be" ("was") is being used in the sense of "exist." In Trump's White House, Charlottesville (i.e., the event that occurred in Charlottesville a year...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

punctuation - how would you punctuate this?

I wrote this sentence yesterday and was wondering if I punctuated it correctly: "Headlines today include Don "lashing", "raging" and "slamming." I'm getting tired of this languaging (& behavior)." wondering if the commas go inside or outside the series of quotes.Read More...
So, regarding point 1, I hope you understand and appreciate my suggestions. Regarding 2, it always helps when our members describe what constraints they are under. And, as I said, the language is evolving. It could very well be that in a few years, "languaging" will be considered a perfectly cromulent word. DocVRead More...
Last Reply By Doc V · First Unread Post

for what he did

Are these sentences correct: 1) He is a bad person for what he did to you. 2) He is not a good person for what he did to you. Does '2' mean the same as '1'? Is it ambiguous? I think it can mean: 3) What he did to you doesn't make him a good person. but I don't know if it could also mean the same as '1'. Gratefully, NaviRead More...
Thank you very much, DocV, Your replies are great and are always appreciated. You, Gustavo and David are doing a wonderful job on this forum. You know exactly why I'm asking a question and what I'm looking for. You guys are great. I hope that the old posts will be restored. So many hours of work went into their production. Gratefully and respectfully, NaviRead More...
Last Reply By navi · First Unread Post

Usage of definite article "the"

Is it mandatory to use the in the following sentence? If I omit the from the sentence, will that be correct and what difference in meaning will it create? Anyone who has good knowledge of the language please answer. I have asked this kind of question many time on this site, you people helped me a lot, still I have some doubt about the usage of the . Here's the example: As a teacher, I feel disappointed for (the) students who could not pass last year's maths exam. I know I can say "As a...Read More...
Subha, here's my best take on your question: 1: As a teacher, I feel disappointed for a student who could not pass last year's math exam. To me, this means that there is one particular non-passing student that the teacher feels disappointed for, regardless of how many there were that failed. It is also possible to see the article "a" as more encompassing, so that (1) could potentially seen as implying some of these other examples. 2: As a teacher, I feel disappointed for any student who...Read More...
Last Reply By Doc V · First Unread Post

Can I say “in force”

Hello, I have agreed to meet someone at particular time and place. It is raining. And I am not sure if the peson will come. Can I ask: ”Is our arrangement in force?” meaning, are we still going to meet as agreed? If “in force”is wrong (which is word for word translation from my native language), how can I express this meaning in English. Thanks.Read More...
Good point, Gustavo. It is certainly true that we can use "in force" in legal contexts. To give a mundane example, a driver might ask himself or his passenger(s), "Is the no-U-turn rule at this intersection still in force at this time of day?" Such traffic laws are sometimes -- i.e., in certain specific places -- in force (and enforced) only during certain time periods. Returning to the topic of how to check whether social plans are still in effect, I wish to emphasize the appropriateness,...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Past simple & present perfect

Can any one help me find the mistake in this sentence ? It came after an explanation of tenses . She went to a state school before going to a private school , but she didn't like it . Thanks .Read More...

Past simple and Present Perfect

ceedhanna
(a)-Where’s your key? (b)-I don’t know. I ............................................ (lose) it. I did German at school but I ............................................ (forget) most of it. I ............................................ (have) a headache earlier but I feel fine now. The police ............................................ (arrest) three people but later they let them go. Where’s my bike? I ....... (leave) it outside the house but now it ............ (disappear)! Oh, I...Read More...
Bitte.Read More...
Last Reply By Doc V · First Unread Post

luxury

Hi, A: Dirty dishes are my least favorite part of cooking. So my husband and kids do the dishes. B: As a single person, I don't have that luxury. What does 'I don't have that luxury' mean in the context? Thank you very much.Read More...
Yes, Yama. In the context, "that luxury" means "the luxury of being able to have my husband and kids do the dishes." The speaker doesn't have that luxury because she is single: she doesn't have a husband and probably has no kids.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

I am lacking in confidence vs I am lacking confidence

Hi, Please accept my greetings from India. I have been grappling with the usage of the word 'lack'. I have gone through various resources including well-reputed dictionaries to untangle it, however, the ambiguity persists regarding its actual categorization as a part of speech. According to the references, 'lacking' is a participle hence should be followed by the preposition 'in'; 'lack' is a verb (transitive/intransitive) and hence should follow a direct object or proposition for its...Read More...
Durrani, Some of these don't have really easy answers. Sometimes a certain combination of words just sounds better. I hate using that explanation, because it always sounds to me like my mother screaming "BECAUSE I TOLD YOU SO!". For what it's worth, let me offer these suggestions: 5 (as iterated before): The confidence that he lacked cost him the election. 5a (your example): The lacked confidence cost him the election. 5b (new): His lack of confidence cost him the election. So far, I like...Read More...
Last Reply By Doc V · First Unread Post

go noodle around

Hi, I’m just going to go noodle / noodling around on the piano for a little while. Should we use go noodle around or go noodling around here and why? Thank you very much.Read More...
Definitely, Kuen. As I said, "go and [verb]" works with most verbs in the simple present. The verbs it works with, however, tend to be verbs denoting activities.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Past and present tenses

Can any one tell me what the mistake is in this sentence . It's in an ESL book to test understanding of tenses . It says : They didn't visit Paris before . I guessed that the writer wanted us to use the present perfect instead of the past simple . However , even if my guess turned out out to be right , I still don't know why it should be so . I need your help . Thanks in advance .Read More...
Thanks for your reply . But , the example you mentioned which said ( " they didn't visit Paris before they got married ." Made another question pop up . Is there a difference in meaning between your example and the following sentence . " they hadn't visited Paris before they got married ."Read More...
Last Reply By Yama · First Unread Post

Gone , gone to , been or been to

Please , Choose one of the four choices to complete the sentence and tell me why . I will take my children to places they have never ...................... . 1) gone 2) gone to 3) been 4) been toRead More...
Thanks for your help . You still didn't give me an answer about this question " I hope you tell me if it's bothering that I ask you directly instead of just posting . " Please tell me . As for your question about my native language and my country , I' m Egyptian . I speak arabic . I have studied English for some time till it became a hobby .Read More...
Last Reply By Yama · First Unread Post

Relative clauses

I saw this question in an ESL book . Find the mistake and correct it in the following sentence : "The playground wasn't used by children whom it was built for. This question came after a brief explanation of relative clauses , so I expected the relative pronoun "whom" to be the mistake but i couldn't see why . Consequently , I thought the mistake could be the missing " the " before the word children . Finally , I said maybe he wanted me to replace" was built " with " had been built " . 😭...Read More...
Wow. Once again, we have cross-talk, although I really don't think I've disagreed with David in any way. I think we're basically saying the same thing in different words. DocVRead More...
Last Reply By Doc V · First Unread Post

"present perfect" vs "past Perfect"

Hi there, should I use 'haven't occurred' or 'hadn't occurred' in the context? Yesterday a tragic bus accident happened in Kolkata. At least 60 people died in the accident. The bus driver was found responsible for the accident. It is not that accidents like this hadn't occurred/haven't occurred before but the number of deaths had never risen/have never risen to that point before. In the above context which tense I should use? I think if I use present perfect it mean before now but as the...Read More...
Thank you. I think I have got your point. Suppose, after one year of the accident, if no accident has taken so many lives so far I can use present perfect. If another accident like that occurs and takes more lives I should use past perfect. Am I right? So after a year, no accident like that takes more lives, I can say: Last year , a tragic bus accident happened in Kolkata. At least 60 people died in the accident. The bus driver was found responsible for the accident. Accidents like this had...Read More...
Last Reply By subhajit123 · First Unread Post

Find the mistake and correct it

I was doing some questions about "used to" when i saw this question which puzzled me. It said find the mistake and correct it: 1) I would have a white cat . 2) I used to drive to work last year . If any one saw a mistake in these two sentences , please enlighten me Thanks in advanceRead More...
Unlike "used to," which expresses habit by itself, I think that for "would" to work in the second sentence some adverbial of frequency denoting repetition of the action in the past would be required, for example: 1.3) When I lived in the countryside, I would drive to work every morning .Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Contributor · First Unread Post

Is this correct?

Hi! Is this correct? “It’s crazy how much things can change in the span of a year”Read More...
Hi, GamezeroEno. I'd like to join Gustavo in welcoming you to the forum. I'd also like to add a tiny bit of information to his answer, with which I fully agree. The phrase "how much things can change in the span of a year" is an embedded exclamatory clause, related to the exclamation "How much things can change in the span of a year!" We know that "how much things can change in the span of a year" is an embedded exclamatory because of "crazy," which here means "amazing," "astonishing,"...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Usage of "so far"

I have a question regarding usage of "so far" . Can anyone please tell me whether I have used so far in my sentence correctly? Here's the example sentence: John, you have done many wrong things in your life. I have supported you every time and have been with you so far but from now on I will never support you.Read More...
Yes, Subha. As you are using it, "so far" essentially means "until this point in time". DocVRead More...
Last Reply By Doc V · First Unread Post

has he ever

a. Has he ever not helped you when you asked him for help? b. Hasn't he ever helped you when you asked him for help? c. Has he not ever helped you when you asked him for help? 1. Have you ever asked him for help and he didn't help you? 2. Have you ever asked him for help and he helped you? It seems to me that (a) corresponds roughly to (1) and (b) and (c) sort of correspond to (2), but imply that the speaker expects a positive reply. (2) sounds neutral to me. One can't tell whether the...Read More...
a=a': Has there ever been an occasion where you asked him for help and he didn't help you? b=c=b': Can you honestly say that he has never helped you when you asked him for help? a=1, more or less. b=c=2, kinda/sorta. DocVRead More...
Last Reply By Doc V · First Unread Post

"an estimated 20,000 people have been..."

Hi all GE members and moderators, I read the following sentence in an article on CNN website about the earthquake in Indonesia. "In total, an estimated 20,000 people have been displaced by the massive earthquake, Nugroho said." I also found the similar pattern from Webster Advanced Learner's Dictionary: "An estimated 50,000 people were in attendance." I don't understand this structure much. Why is "an" used before the plural noun "people" and the verb is plural. Please enlighten me. Many thanksRead More...
I totally agree (I particularly like the "non-recoverable syntactic ellipsis" explanation). Actually, I explained my sentences (c) and (d) by saying "the total was incredible / is massive," and the "elided" noun in my sentence (e) is "amount/quantity of," not "number of." Definitely. It seems to me that the use of the singular article is the mechanism the language has come up wih to enable adjectives to modify numbers. Actually, we could do without the noun that follows and the sentence...Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Contributor · First Unread Post

Present Perfect and Past continuous

ceedhanna
What is the difference between these two sentences? 1- She ’s been working as an intern. 2- She was working as an intern.Read More...
Hi, Ceedhanna: Sentence (1) represents her working as an intern as something that has happened recently and up to now and as something that is perhaps still continuing. It could be used without further context. Sentence (2) represents her working as an intern as something that was occurring at some point in the past. What that point is, we don't know. The sentence doesn't make sense in the absence of further context.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Reflexive pronouns

Hello! could you clarify this sentence please? "Several attractive options have presented themselves in the past few years." I dont get the use of the reflexive pronoun here. Isn't it the same?: Several ......have been presented in the past..... Thanks in advance SandraRead More...
Thanks a bunch Gustavo😀Read More...
Last Reply By sandra · First Unread Post

Past simple and Past continuous

ceedhanna
This website (http://www.time4english.com/aamain/school/gram18b1.asp) states that when It is unclear whether there are two long actions. We can use when or while: The dog was barking when she was talking to her mother on the phone. The dog was barking while she was talking to her mother on the phone. How far is that true?Read More...
Hi, Ceedhanna: The condition, as you have stated it, makes no sense to me. Both sentences are fine. I do sense a subtle difference between them, and, if I ever get around to replying to your general inquiry concerning "when" and "while" and the progressive, I shall point to this type of difference. The subtle difference is this. The sentence with "while," unlike the sentence with "when," indicates that the dog's barking continued throughout the period of time during which she was talking to...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Fallen/falling

Hi all GE members and Moderators, "Fallen leaves " are leaves that have fallen on the ground while "falling leaves" are leaves that are still falling down from trees. How about "a falling tree"? Does it mean that a tree has just been chopped and is still in the progress of falling? I asked because I just read an example about present participles used as adjectives and the example given is "a falling tree". Many thanksRead More...
To complete the answer to the question implied by your subject heading, a "fallen" tree is one that is no longer "falling", but is now most likely lying on the ground. DocV PS: Is "TONYCK 2" different from the old "tonyck" that we used to know?Read More...
Last Reply By Doc V · First Unread Post

Present perfect since Present perfect

ceedhanna
In this website (Russian Website, translation is needed): https://eng-grammar.livejournal.com/26534.html I found this sentence : "Have you met any of your neighbours since you've lived here? (неправильно: ‘ ...you lived... ’ )". (Wrong: ‘ ...you lived... ’) How far is that true? ThanksRead More...
Thanks a lot, Gustavo. Really helpful, and sorry about the silly mistake of 'It is been'.Read More...
Last Reply By husseinhassan · First Unread Post

Usage of "the"

Hi everyone, I have a question regarding the usage of the . Should I use the in the following sentence? Suppose I am a sports teacher in my school. I enter a class in my school and want to know if the students in the class would like to play soccer today. So, should I use the in the following sentence? Here's the context: Hi everyone, Today we will play soccer. (The)students who want to play join me at the school ground. I know it is better to use those or "anyone who wants to... instead of...Read More...
Than you..😄Read More...
Last Reply By subhajit123 · First Unread Post

newbie, willing to learn

I would like to take this opportunity to say hello to everyone. I have recently begun to write creatively; I am hooked on writing, though my grammar lets me down. I now wish to develop my craft. That drive has brought me here! I am hooked on both the complexity and the flexibility of the subject. I bow down to those of you who have mastered this, and hope you rub off on me. For fun please correct my above paragraph. After that, I graciously ask, if you see me on here asking a question, know...Read More...
Hello, Bisleybob, and welcome to the Grammar Exchange! Your Displayed Name is very amusing. I assume it's a play on "Beelzebub." You haven't made any major mistakes in the paragraph in question. The semicolon in the second sentence is questionable, as is your use of "this" in "those of you who have mastered this." If you mean for "this" to refer to "the subject," I recommend using "it" instead. If you mean for "this" to refer to "the complexity and the flexibility of the subject," I...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Present perfect simple VS Present perfect continuous

husseinhassan
Hello, all. I need your help. - My hands are muddy because I __________ some flowers. a. have planted b. have been planting c. bOth "Aim High" (a book is published by Oxford university press, and the curriculum I teach) says that ONLY the present perfect continuous is possible. I wonder why we don't use the present perfect simple in such a context, i.e. there is an influence in the present (my hands are muddy). Furthermore, there's no indication that the action is in progress nor completed.Read More...
Got it. Thank you so much.Read More...
Last Reply By husseinhassan · First Unread Post

Verb patterns

husseinhassan
Good afternoon, our teachers, Could you please, help me choose the correct answer to the following question and give a reason, if possible? - The two performers were only pretending _____________ a good relationship. a. having b. to have c. to have had Thanks in advance 🌹Read More...
Thanks a lot, David.Read More...
Last Reply By husseinhassan · First Unread Post

grammar check please

, we haven't seen each other for a long time but it feels like ive seen you yesterday. -we are going to throw a reunion soon in December, want to join? - my sister is about to get on my last nerve. i dont know why she wont listen to me -- calm down. some people just won't be told. you are the one who needs to put up with her. - i wonder why he is not replying my text. he hasn't been replying any of my texts these days. -i got to go back to home. or i've got to go back to home. -i have texted...Read More...
Hi, welcome to the forum. Would you like to ask a focused question?Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

"or" vs "otherwise"

Do the words "otherwise" and "or" mean the same in the following context? Are they both correct? Here is the examples: John, you should follow the instructions that teacher said, or/otherwise you will not be able to complete the project.Read More...
Subha, My sense is that "or" is a conjunction that can join two co-equal (is that redundant?) clauses within a single sentence, whereas "otherwise" is an adverb that should introduce a separate sentence. Hence: A: John, you should follow the instructions that teacher said, or you will not be able to complete the project. B: John, you should follow the instructions that teacher said. Otherwise, you will not be able to complete the project. I hope this helps. DocVRead More...
Last Reply By Doc V · First Unread Post

"simple past tense" vs "present perfect"

I have a question regarding the usage of "simple past tense" vs "presen perfect tense" . Sometimes I see they are both possible to talk about a finished action. I know we cannot use "present perfect tense" to talk about a finished action that have mentioned time frame. But my question is different. Suppose, something happened yesterday but I do not want to mention the time rather I want to describe what happened. In this kind of situation which tense is appropriate? Here's the context: I...Read More...
Hi, Subhajit: You can use a sentence like "I bought a new cell phone" without a time adverbial if the context in which you are using the sentence contains an implicit indication of the time frame. For example, if you are talking with a friend of yours and are asked, "What have you been up to?," you could reply, "I bought a new cell phone." It would be clear implicitly, from the surrounding social context, that you meant that you had bought a new cell phone recently. Otherwise, without an...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

the meaning of "only some students"

The following is an excerpt from a CNBC article. What does "only some students have to worry about what that means for their chances" mean? Who are "some students?" Are they legacy students or non-legacy students? Legacy students account for about 30% and non-legacy students about 70%. I'm having trouble interperting the word "some" in this context. "Top schools now have record low admission rates, but only some students have to worry about what that means for their chances. Legacy...Read More...
Hi, Fujibei, Those who have to worry in the face of low admission rates are non-legacy students. "only some" there is used as opposed to "all" ( not all students have to worry) and is anticipating information that will be provided later: legacy students are said to be at a distinct advantage, being three times more likely to be admitted than non-legacy students, and therefore have no reason to worry. For those who want to know what "legacy students" means, let's quote the definition from...Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Contributor · First Unread Post

Usage of "from" and "since"

Can anyone please tell me if I should you since or from in the following sentence? Here are the example: 1- I had a chronic liver disease from/since my childhood days. Now I am fine after the operation. 2- I had a liver operation in my liver last year because I had pain in my upper abdomen. I had had a liver disease since/from my childhood.Read More...
I think you mean "use," Subhajit. Example (1) would be better with the present perfect rather than the simple past. Then you can use "since my childhood days" or "from my childhood days on" ("on" is an important addition: "from then on"): (1a) I have had a chronic liver disease since my childhood days, but now I am fine. (1b) I have had a chronic liver disease from my childhood days on , but now I am fine. Example (2) is fine with "since." If you use "from," add "on" after "childhood."Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Particularly and in particular

can anyone please tell me if the following is correct:- "I have never meant to be nasty to anyone, above all else my wife, and especially all of my family, above all else my wife, and in particular all of my wife's family."Read More...
Hi, Nick. Welcome back! No, the sentence is not correct. But it looks as if you forgot what you were typing midway through the sentence, repeating yourself and then blundering through to the end. It's always a good idea to reread what we have written. What would improve your sentence greatly is a shift from "above all else" to "least of all": I have never meant to be nasty to anyone, least of all to my wife, to my family, or to my wife's family. I have also changed "and" to "or," since "or"...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

long enough

Which are correct: 1) I'm going to make sure you'll live long enough that you may go to trial. 2) I'm going to make sure you'll live long enough so that you may go to trial. 3) I'm going to make sure you'll live long enough, so that you may go to trial. Gratefully, NaviRead More...
Hello, Navi: I strongly dislike all three of the sentences. One problem is the use of "(wi)ll live"; the present simple is the tense to use there. The other problem is the "(so) that"-clause, which wants desperately to be changed to an infinitive clause: (4) I'm going to make sure you live long enough to go to trial .Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

the ordering of noun, adjective, and enough

Hi! I'm interested in the ordering of a noun, an adjective, and the adverb enough as shown in the following pair: (1) a. "He is a soldier brave enough to attempt it." b. "He is a brave enough soldier to attempt it." I found (1a) and (1b) in a dictionary and they seem to be treated as synonymous (or at least syntactically possible options). I would like to know the difference between them if any in terms of meaning, context in which they tend to appear, etc. (2) a. I don't have a jacket big...Read More...
Thank you so much, DocV!Read More...
Last Reply By yasukotta · First Unread Post

but with a thick accent

1) Like you, he can speak French fluently but with a thick foreign accent. 2) Like you, he can speak French fluently, but with a thick foreign accent. 3) He can speak French fluently like you, but with a thick foreign accent. 4) He can speak French fluently, like you, but with a thick foreign accent. 5) Like you, he can speak French fluently, but has a thick foreign accent. Which are correctly punctuated? In which cases: a) you speak French with a thick foreign accent In which cases: b) you...Read More...

Usage of "the" before a verbal noun

Hi there, should I use the before the verbal noun in the following sentence? Here is the sentence: 1- John, you should come at 11 A.M before (the) beginning of the game. I know I can write "John, you should come at 11 am before the game begins." My question is, in this kind of context should I need to use the?Read More...
Hi, Subhajit, I'd only like to add something to David's excellent answer, and that is that, whenever you have a postmodifier like " of the game," you will need the article, whether the noun has verbal origin (i.e. is a gerund) or not: - You should come before the start of the game. - You should come before the commencement of the game. (Of course, "beginning" would be the most usual of the three, and "commencement" would be definitely formal.) The gerund has nominal value but has a strong...Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Contributor · First Unread Post
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