Skip to main content

Questions and Answers

where

Are these sentences correct: 1) You want to give her enough instruction where she can't beat you. 2) You want to give her enough instruction so that she can't beat you. '1' is from here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uspaYHV5Xt8 Go to 4:20 He's saying that if you take a woman to a bowling alley on a date, you want to give her some instruction, but not enough for her to beat you. He's a native speaker and is speaking naturally. Obviously he can make mistakes, like everybody. But I see this...Read More...

Which one is the same as <those>? <ones> or < the ones>?

Hi, I am still having trouble understanding the usages of <ones>, <the ones>, and <those> respectively. I understand that <those> and <the ones> are often interchangeable. What makes me understand this is the use of <the> . But I don't know what is the important difference between <ones> with no article and < the ones>, especially followed by the relative pronoun such as <which>. As far as I know, both can be followed by the relative...Read More...
Gustavo, I apologize for that. Here is the sentence I want to ask about. From Reasons of One's Own On the contrary, many of the thoughts that I have ones that I do not endorse, although I am perfectly aware that they are my own. I don't clearly understand when I should ones , not the ones and is it OK to use <those> or <the ones> instead of <ones> here? Actually, <those> or <the ones> here seem OK to me. Could you tell me how to distinguish between <ones>...Read More...
Last Reply By GBLSU · First Unread Post

an averbial clause

I have an adverbial clause that begins a sentence and the independent part of the sentence is a list (with commas) of more than three items. I think that I should use a semi-colon to separate the dependent and independent clauses but I'm not sure. helpRead More...
Hello again, Clueless —The semicolon after "swim" is incorrect. You need a comma there instead. You also need a comma after "swimmers," for a grand total of 5 commas. There is no limit to the number of commas a sentence may have, provided the sentence calls structurally for the insertion of each comma. Although only ten percent of the population of this country knows how to swim, many of its citizens are world-class swimmers, including entrepreneur James Levitt, President Dwight Eisenhower,...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

“as may”

“And Britain is not the only country beset by labour shortages. In America job vacancies are at their highest level for almost two decades. Manufacturers in eastern Europe are struggling to attract workers, with Hungarian wages up by 9.2% in March, year on year. Australian miners, Tasmanian fruit farmers and Canadian restaurateurs all report trouble with hiring. This has left workers with something they have long lacked: bargaining power. It may all turn out to be transitory, as may the...Read More...
Yes, Sarah. You have understood it perfectly well.Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

thanks

What is the meaning of "thanks" in the sentence below? It is a verb or noun? The train appears to be "floating" thanks to an electromagnetic force that sends it gliding above the tracks. https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.cnn.com/travel/amp/china-fastest-maglev-train-intl-hnk/index.htmlRead More...
Last Reply By joshua · First Unread Post

The use of "AWARD" as a verb

Greetings to you all, We have had the following sentence in our GSCE exam: "He was awarded because of his scientific research." Is this use of "award" with the indirect object (He) correct? Or should the sentence be reworded to have a direct object, like this: "He was awarded the Nobel Prize for his scientific research"? Thank you very muchRead More...
Thank you very muchRead More...
Last Reply By Abdullah Mahrouse · First Unread Post

those of you who

a. You who stayed up last night should go to bed early tonight. Does that mean a1. You, who stayed up last night, should go to bed early tonight. or a2. Those of you who stayed up last night should go to bed early tonight. ? ---------------------------------------- b. They who came here yesterday will come here tomorrow, Does that mean b1. They, who came here yesterday, will come here tomorrow. or b2. Those who came here yesterday will come here tomorrow. ? Many thanksRead More...

which we don't want

a. He will start drinking, which we don't want. b. He will start drinking, which is something we don't want. c. He will start drinking, which we don't want him to do. d. He will drink, which we don't want him to do. Are any of the above sentences grammatically correct? Are any natural? If '3' is correct, what does 'which we don't want him to do' modify? Many thanks.Read More...

I Bought A Knife To Cut Bread With.

(1) I bought a knife to cut bread with . I think possible interpretations of (1) would be: a) I bought a knife with which I/you/one can cut bread. (This implies that not all knives are appropriate for cutting bread; I bought one with which it's possible to cut bread) b) I bought a knife with which I intend to cut bread. (This is talking more about my intentions than the type of knife) (2) I bought a knife to cut bread . (This means I bought the knife in order to cut bread; purpose,...Read More...
Hi, Language Learner, My interpretation is that "to cut bread with" is an infinitival relative clause, and can only be used to define the type of knife (meaning (a): with which to cut bread ). The infinitival "to cut bread" expresses the purpose of, or the reason for buying a knife. I think it can also be used to describe the type of knife, but I find it to be less idiomatic than (1). To express purpose, you can also say: (3) I bought a knife to cut bread with it .Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

Past perfect

Hi, "After I ..........my lessons yesterday, I went for a walk." a-had studied b- studied I think (b) is the correct answer because (yesterday) refers the to past simple.Read More...
Hi, Ahmed.A.A.—You can use either the past simple or the past perfect in the "after"-clause. I personally find it more natural to use the past simple there.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Is I will cure the world of cancer grammatically correct

Is using of alright here or is from a better choice.Read More...
Hello, djSham, and welcome to the Grammar Exchange. The sentence "I will cure the world of cancer" is grammatically correct. Please read our guidelines to learn how to ask a question properly at this site.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Independent clauses

Hello there everyone, I'm having some trouble recognising independent and dependent clauses. 1 I've got a sandwich and an apple. 2 They were poor but hardworking. With reference to the sentences above, I believe that " I've got a sandwich " and " They were poor " are independent clauses that are complete thoughts and can stand alone. I'm just not sure about the second half of my two sentences above. I know that if I include what has been elided/omitted from the first sentence i.e. " I've got...Read More...
Funnily enough, I thought that speaking about ellipsis would sound like a groundbreaking analysis. Next time I will stick to my convictions — never in my syntactic analysis exercises since I was in college would I have said that those sentences were anything but simple.Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

What does the reflexive/personnel pronoun refer to?

“There is an irony in all this. Xenophobia has probably existed for as long as people have. But racist attitudes were reinforced in the 19th century by an enthusiasm for physical anthropology and eugenics. The former attempted to classify human beings on the basis of visible characteristics, such as skin colour, head shape and facial features, that are genetically inherited. If this had been a neutral analysis, it would have been unexceptional. But often it was not neutral. It not only...Read More...
Hi, Sarah, In your parsing identified as (1) above, "in minds" is not an object, but an adverbial of place. "The thinking" does not refer to anything mentioned before in the text. It refers to the philosophy or ideology underlying racism. "Them" refers to the prejudices. "It" and "itself" refer to the 3MAG project. "That" refers to eliminating the prejudices. The general idea is that, deep-rooted as racism is, a mere project is not enough to do away with it.Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

To China now, which less then a decade ago ~

Hello, Grammar Exchange members! I ran across the following sentence while listening to a short NPR News clip. 1. To China now, which less than a decade ago was still forcing women to get abortions if they had more than one child. What bothers me is the part in bold print. First of all, is #1 a sentence? I'm not sure whether it's a sentence or not because of "To China." What do you think? Thanks in advance -KDogRead More...
Hi, Gustavo! I've never thought about that. Thank you for your insight!Read More...
Last Reply By KDog · First Unread Post

opposed vs opposing

Can I ask whether I can change < opposing> and <opposed> each to <opposed and opposing> ? The opposing team may be stronger than you thought. We need to discuss the two diametrically opposed viewpoints. The opposed team may be stronger than you thought. (?) We need to discuss the two diametrically opposing viewpoints. (?)Read More...
Thank you for the clear explanation, Gustavo.Read More...
Last Reply By GBLSU · First Unread Post

Is ’wait for’ a phrasal verb?

Hello, everyone, “He got up and stood patiently in front of the door, waiting for the door to open in the subway train.” I understand " he waited for the door to open " means "he waited for the opening of the door“ When I parse the underlined part of the sentence, which one is natural to you between following two?; 1) he [waited for] (the door) the door to open; - waited for; a transitive phrasal verb (but I’m not sure if this is a phrasal verb, based on the separability of the two words) -...Read More...
Hi, David, I've understood your last lengthy explanation with sincere thanks except the following abbreviated terminology - TP, [TP]pp, [TP]cp. Please let me know the full word.Read More...
Last Reply By deepcosmos · First Unread Post

"...bring with it"

"Genetic diversity brings with it diversity of genetic disease. Cystic fibrosis—in any case rarer in Africa than in Europe—is often caused there by a different mutation from the one involved in the European version, and is thus missed by tests developed in the West." [from The Economist ] The first sentence structure looks wired for me. From my understanding, it means “Genetic diversity brings a variety of genetic disease.” Can anyone help explain it?Read More...
I just made that phrase up to further increase the length of the object and to show you that, the longer the object, the more likely "with it" will appear before it.Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

“what-clause‘’

“The Three Million African Genomes (3MAG) project, a continent-wide endeavour, proposes to do for the place what has already been done for Europe, North America and parts of Asia —namely to catalogue and analyse the genetic diversity of those who live there.”[from The Economist ] The main sentence is “The Three Million African Genomes (3MAG) project proposes to catalogue and analyse the genetic diversity of those who live there.” I think “what-clause” below is modifying “TheThree Million...Read More...
Hi, Sarah—No, the "what"-clause does not modify that phrase. It does not modify anything. The "what"-clause is a noun phrase that functions as the direct object of "do": The project proposes to do something for the place "something" = "what has already been done for Europe, North America . . .").Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

was/is when talking about former positions

Dear GE, May I know how to use was/is when talking about past CEOs pupils etc. For example, when we talk about someone who is longer e.g. Reagan is it 1) Reagan is a past president ofthe U.S.A. or Regan was... 2) Regan is a past pupil of Eureka Colleage or Regan was.. The words past/alumnus/former etc already mention they are not currently in those positions. So, is it necessary to put was instead of is ? Also I want to know does this rule change based on the fact are they still living or...Read More...
The present simple is used when you provide someone with facts. You just use statements of fact. - Reagan is a past president of the U.S.A. and is considered the the GOP political Saint. His era is one of the …... If you want to stick to the past and just give an account of what happened, you should use the past simple. - Reagan was a past president of the U.S.A. and was considered the GOP political Saint. His era was one of the …..Read More...
Last Reply By ahmed_btm · First Unread Post

"yet"

“Most non-Africans alive today trace the bulk of their ancestry to Africans who burst forth on an unprepared world about 60,000 years ago. Indeed, the oldest representative of the species yet found in Britain retained the dark skin of his African forebears.”[from The Economist ] What does “yet” mean in this sentence? Does it mean “but”? Most non-Africans alive today trace the bulk of their ancestry to Africans who burst forth on an unprepared world about 60,000 years ago. But the oldest...Read More...
Hi, Sarah—In the first example, "yet" means "to date"/"up to now"; in the second example, it means "still." You can find both definitions in dictionaries.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Past simple or present perfect

It ........ yesterday. It's muddy outlside. 1)rained 2)has rained 3)rains 4)rain Obviously, we should choose either 1 or 2 What confuses me is that there is a time reference( yesterday) and there's also a present result in the second sentence. So, should I use "rained" because of yesterday or "has rained" because of the present result ? Thanks in advance.Read More...
Hi, Yama, and nice to see you here again, What is the source of this question? With 'yesterday', go with '1) rained'.Read More...
Last Reply By ahmed_btm · First Unread Post

GOT = DID GET?

Is "Got" means "Did get"?Read More...
Grammar Man, This thread is closely related to this other one . "Did" is only used in the affirmative for emphasis: A. He wasn't injured during the shootout. B. You are wrong. He did get shot. That said, the phrase "the person to have got shot" is equivalent to "the person who got shot." The perfect infinitive "to have got shot," which is passive (similar to "to have been shot"), refers to the past, and means "who got shot" (or "who was shot).Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

to be considered something

Hello, The eastern bluebird is considered an attractive bird native to this continent by many bird-watchers. (Source: Iran's university entrance exams) 1. Is "attractive bird" a subject complement? 2. Can we say "consider" is functioning as a linking verb here? 3. To me, It is not clear whether many birdwatchers consider it to be ‘attractive’ or ‘native to this continent’ or both. Isn't it an awkward sentence?Read More...
Because he is busy, I did not expect him to answer me, And when I asked my questions here, I hadn't received any response from the professor. Also you always provide us with good explanations.Read More...
Last Reply By Freeguy · First Unread Post

You are allowed to go if you promise to let us know when you arrive.

1) You are allowed to go as long as you promise to let us know when you arrive. 2) You can borrow the car as long as you promise not to drive too fast . 3) You are allowed to go if you promise to let us know when you arrive. 4) You can borrow the car if you promise not to drive too fast . Are these sentences correct?Read More...
Hi, Language learner, Yes, they are.Read More...
Last Reply By ahmed_btm · First Unread Post

strike somebody as (being) something

“ Universal may strike investors as more appealing still. Its back catalogue of 3m songs, by everyone from the Beatles to Lady Gaga, is twice the size of Warner’s. Its slug of the recorded-music market is creeping up.”[from The Economist ] the explaination of " strike somebody as (being) something " from ldoceonline : to seem to have a particular quality or feature So 1. "His jokes didn't strike Jack as being very funny." means "His jokes didn't seem fuuny to me."? 2."Universal may strike...Read More...
Yes, Sarah.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

magnificent or magnificently?

Hi, could you tell me whether the adjective 'magnificent' is correctly used in this sentence? If you knew which cream is the perfect one to use, or how you should actually whip it, don’t you think that cake would have turned out magnificent ? Would I be correct in assuming that the adverb 'magnificently' would be the better word to use? Thank you.Read More...
Hi Ahmed, glad to see you too! You've given me an awesome answer, Ahmed, and for that, I thank you! Have a nice day and stay safe!Read More...
Last Reply By gilbert · First Unread Post

being OR to be

1) The first person to have got shot by the police was Firoz, a 16-year-old boy who was playing cricket at the beach. Media had released visuals showing Firoz being dragged away from the site by the police. 2) The first person to have got shot by the police was Firoz, a 16-year-old boy who was playing cricket at the beach. Media had released visuals showing Firoz to be dragged away from the site by the police. Dear Sir Which sentence is correct and why such sentences are being used?Read More...
Thank you so much, Gustavo 😄Read More...
Last Reply By Grammar Man · First Unread Post

TO HAVE

The first person to have got shot by the police was Firoz, a 16-year-old boy who was playing cricket at the beach. I paraphrase the above sentence below: - The first person, who has got shot by the police was Firoz, a 16-year-old boy who was playing cricket at the beach. Is it right?Read More...
Thank you, Ahmed. Ot is clear now 😄Read More...
Last Reply By Grammar Man · First Unread Post

they live there

a. I have found out something about bears. They live in the forest near our town. (Some of them live in the forest near out town.) b. Tom and Harry were talking about old books. They were in their father's library. (Some old books were in their father's library.) c. We need to learn more about rats. They live on the streets of our city. (There are rats living on the streets of our city.) Are (a), (b) and (c) grammatically correct and do the convey the right meaning? Many thanks.Read More...

How do I look?

Could you tell me whether <how> is an adjective or an adverb? It looks like a complement of <look> to me, but many English dictionaries say it is an adverb. I don't get it. If an answer to the question, < how do I look>, is <You look fine >, then I think it could be an adjective. What is wrong with my thinking this way?Read More...

To be

(1) "You want the reason to be death by suicide, right?" (2) "You want the reason to death by suicide, right?" Story : The lady doctor killed the criminal in the jail with the support of Police. And She came upto the Police room and asking this question. Which sentence is the right one and why? Please explain this in detail. 1st sentence is used with "TO BE" and 2nd sentence is used without "BE". (Enclosed attachment herewith)Read More...
No. I never said that. Sentence (1) is not grammatical. Please read carefully what I wrote: If you use the verb "want," you have to use (2). Yes, "to" is followed by an infinitive. "Be" is an infinitive, not a verb in the past.Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

Grammar Treatises and Textbook Recommendations

Could you recommend to me an English Grammar reference book that is complete and readable at the same time? Could you recommend to me something with exercises and answers of which they will put my understanding to test? There are certain things such as the articles and the present perfect tense that I'm having trouble understanding, which I wish that they taught in school.Read More...

a reflexive pronoun

I am wondering if I write them right. Actually I wonder which one I should use, just the pronouns or the reflexive pronouns after prepositions, or whether both are possible. Do you have some money on yourself? He put the box next to himself Did you bring my umbrella with yourself ?Read More...

participle

I have a question about the followings I know 'rising, changing, and falling' are correct, but I don't know exactly whether the other risen, changed, and fallen are wrong. If they could be wrong, could you tell me why, please? On my way back home, I saw smoke (rising/risen) from somewhere. I felt the temperature of the water in the bathtub ( changed/changing) slightly. Did you see the pipe (falling / fallen) off the roof.Read More...

Possessive Pronouns

Hi, everyone. A possessive pronoun replaces both the possessive adjective (determiner) and the noun in a sentence. So, if I wrote This lantern is mine , would my sentence be grammatically incorrect based on the definition above, if the noun [lantern] still appears in it? Thank you. Gilbert.Read More...
Hello David! A gem of an answer! Thank you so much.Read More...
Last Reply By gilbert · First Unread Post

“As well as” & “both of which”

I tried to use “as well as” and “both of which” to make sentence. Please help to take a look if my sentence is correct. There is much to be said for having roommate to live together. Firstly, as well as sharing monthly renting fee, a roommate can also bears half of the cost of utilities, both of which are inevitable expenses in each month bill.Read More...
Thanks Ahmed, There is much to be said for having a roommate. As well as sharing a monthly renting fee, a roommate can also bear half of the cost of utilities and both of which are inevitable in each monthly bill.Read More...
Last Reply By Sarah Zhou · First Unread Post

In and To

1) As per an update from the UNICEF, over 60,000 babies are expected to be born in India on December 1, 2021 2) I was say to brother that we both are very fortunate to be born to my parents. In the first sentence after "to be" used "in" and second sentence after to be used "to" ! why? And what is the meaning "expected to be born" here? Why is that?Read More...
I agree with Ahmed's comments above. Another way to phrase (2), which is both ungrammatical and unnatural as you wrote it, Grammar Man, is like this: (2a) I was telling my brother that he and I are very fortunate to have the parents we do.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

The airport has been being built.

Had a student who wanted to make this kind of sentence, in the passive voice and it's an ongoing process. "The airport has been being built" just sounds wrong to me, but is it? Could say "...has been under contruction" of couse, but is "...been being built" wrong? It's twisting my melon - any thoughts/ideas appreciated!Read More...
I accept your apology. This is a grammar forum and we value discussions. Saying that something is not correct is not acceptable unless a valid reason is provided. You have misread what I wrote: "to mean" above is an infinitival of purpose: - "is being built" is possible (= can occur) to mean (= to express the meaning) "is (currently) under construction" I'm well aware about the uses of the present perfect and the present perfect continuous. Having clarified that, I'm afraid there's nothing...Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

“whatever-clause”

“Yet in early April the curve began to flatten. The yields on two-, three- and five-year Treasury bonds perked up as money markets began to price in the prospect that the Federal Reserve would raise interest rates in 2023. There were bigger moves at the long end of the curve. By this week the ten-year yield had fallen to 1.5%, more than 0.2 percentage points lower than at the end of March. The 30-year yield fell by even more. Whatever lies behind this, it cannot really be laid at the Fed’s...Read More...
Yes, Sarah, it does.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Please help analyze the ''as-clause''

“The yields on two-, three- and five-year Treasury bonds perked up as money markets began to price in the prospect that the Federal Reserve would raise interest rates in 2023.”[from The Economist ] I know that “that-clause” is a relative clause modifying "the prospect". Please help analyze the “as-clause”. 1.What does word “as” and “price” mean? 2.I can’t figure out the position of the the preposition “in”. Should it be “as money markets began to price in the prospect” or “as money markets...Read More...
Hi, Sarah—"As" means "while" there. "In" means "in light of the."Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

hailing from

What is the meaning of "hailing" in the sentence below? Is it meant 'come from'? The company's day-to-day functioning leaves much to be desired in terms of promoting diversity. Recently, the owner's cousin was promoted to the post of a branch manager while three suitable candidates hailing from different cultures were blatantly overlooked. The company's day-to-day functioning leaves much to be desired in terms of promoting diversity. Recently, the owner's cousin was promoted to the post of a...Read More...
Yes, thanksRead More...
Last Reply By joshua · First Unread Post

What does ''to the surprise of many'' mean?

''In the first quarter, the message from the yield curve seemed clear. A steepening in its slope—a rise in long-term yields relative to short-term yields—said the economy was accelerating and inflation was coming. A lot of that steepening has since been reversed, to the surprise of many. Of the many interpretations of this change, one stands out. It says the early-cycle phase is over. The markets have entered a new and more difficult stage.''[from The Econimist ] A lot of that steepening has...Read More...
"To the surprise of many" is a sentential adverbial of viewpoint. It comments on the content of the clause to which it is attached in the same way that "Surprisingly" does. "To the surprise of many" is in the same family of sentential viewpoint adverbials as "Much to my surprise," "To their dismay," "To his chagrin," etc. What are you trying to ask? Sentences are not entities that possess any type of knowledge, grammatical or otherwise. It is speakers that know things.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Intransitive Verb

1 a dream come true (o) 2 a person studied alone (x) As you know, the first phrase is grammatically right and the second one is wrong. But What I am confused about is why the first one is right despite both intransitive verbs, which are come and study, being used as a passive form. To my limited grammatical knowledge , an intransitive verb is not used as a passive form. How can I distinguish which one could be a set expression or which one not? Is there any 'Verb' category defining this...Read More...
Got it. Thanks.Read More...
Last Reply By GBLSU · First Unread Post

a present participle

I am wondering why 'doing' is not correct. It makes sense to me, but I can't figure out what is wrong with using 'doing' I helped him (doing/do ) the job Also, I don't know whether this sentence is correct or not. I was helped to do the job Could you explain it, please?Read More...
Thanks.Read More...
Last Reply By GBLSU · First Unread Post

either form of “ID / IDs” to open ...

Hello, everyone, Choose the suitable answer in following blank; “You can submit ________ form of ID to open your new account at the bank.” 1) both, 2) these, 3) some, 4) either While the answer is suggested as no.4) in my text book, I don’t think the suitable one is available in the above shown with following reasons – especially, we should treat the “Identification” as a countable noun in this context and also I think the one suitable ID would be enough to open our new account at the bank;...Read More...
Thanks million, Gustavo, Anyone who has access to this website would feel they are really glad to have big help from you.Read More...
Last Reply By deepcosmos · First Unread Post

how to use ''as well as''

To me, the usage of ''as well as'' is very complicated. ''As well as monitoring biodiversity, technology can also be deployed to protect it. ''[from The Economist ] I think the phrase ''as well as'' in above sentence act as a conjunction meaning ''in addition to'' . Can I rewrite it into the below sentence? ''Technology can be used in protecting biodiversity, as well as monitoring biodiversity.''Read More...
I agree with Ahmed that the comma is unnecessary, but I recommend adding "in" before "monitoring" and changing "biodiversity" to "it": Technology can be used in protecting biodiversity(,) as well as in monitoring it.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

All men are mortal

Can we remove the 'all' in 'all men are mortal' whilst still retaining the meaning of the sentence? i.e. Does 'men are mortal' have the same meaning as 'all men are mortal'?Read More...
"Birds" can refer either to some members of the class of birds (e.g., "There are birds in the warehouse" means that some birds are in the wearhouse, not that every bird in existence inhabits the warehouse) or to the whole class of birds in the abstract, as in sentences like "Birds fly" and "Birds have wings," which do not make the claim of every bird in existence, some of which are injured or deformed and therefore do not realize all the qualities of "bird" in the abstract.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post
×
×
×
×