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Much more and many more

Hi, Swan said, ''When 'more' modifies a plural noun, it is modified by 'many' instead of 'much'.'' Yet, Swan had mentioned, in the same page, the following sentence too: ''There are much nicer shops.'' Why did he use ''much'' before the plural noun ''shops''? Mustn't it be ''many''?Read More...
HI, Ahmed, 'Much' here precedes the comparative adjective 'nicer', not the noun 'shops'. A similar example is: - I have to work much longer hours these days.Read More...
Last Reply By ahmed_btm · First Unread Post

better than

I like A better than B I like A rather than B Are those the same or interchangeable?Read More...
Hi, GBLSU, No, they are not. 1. I like A better than B. = It means you like them bot h, but you like B less (than A). 2. I like A rather than B. = It means you only like A, but you don't like B.Read More...
Last Reply By ahmed_btm · First Unread Post

Rather than being

Rather than be engaged actively in the lesson, he may have been preoccupied with trying to imagine pumpkin pie. Is <Being> possible instead of <be>? How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and SchoolRead More...

.... and ....

Who is Clinton's wife? As I know Clinton's wife is Hilliary. Clinton walked out arm-in-arm with his wife and former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton before greeting hospital staff and giving a thumbs-up when asked how he was feeling. https://edition.cnn.com/2021/10/17/politics/bill-clinton-released-hospital-infection/index.htmlRead More...
No. If two people were involved, there would be another "with" or another determiner for "former Secretary of State": - Clinton walked out arm-in-arm with his wife and (with) a former Secretary of State. Imagine this analogous example: - On this forum, I work with my colleague and grammar expert David Evans. It is clear that David is both my colleague and a grammar expert.Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

Inquiry

Can I use SINCE and FOR with HAVE GONE and HAVE BEEN as the past participle of GO? Can I say, for example, "My uncle lives in Paris. He has gone there since 2015 " ? For me, I see it is incorrect. Instead, we should use BEEN as the past participle of BE. "My uncle lives in Paris. He has BEEN there since 2015 " ? However, I still need your confirmation. Thanks in advance 🙏Read More...

Why is "friendly-looking" hyphenated?

1. Our dog needs a pet-friendly place to stay. 2. Our dog needs a perfectly friendly place to stay. 3. Our dog needs a friendly-looking place to stay. 4. Our dog needs a large, friendly and comfortable place to stay. From skimming through grammar websites, I believe the punctuation (including hyphens) above are correct on all accounts. However, I'm confused as to why "friendly-looking" is hyphenated. If the word, "looking" isn't a noun, then wouldn't that make "friendly" an adverb in that...Read More...
Hi, Gary, Hyphenation is typical of compounds. In the case of adverbs preceding adjectives, the adverb modifies the adjective — they do not form a compound word, but a phrase, as in extremely friendly . In compound words, the components lose their independence to form a new lexical unit, and this is marked by a hyphen. While "extremely friendly" is an adjective phrase, "friendly-looking" is a compound adjective. This compounding mechanism is recorded by Quirk and Greenbaum in "A University...Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

How to interpret " by a parent"

Hi, everyone. 1. Children must be accompanied by a parent. Does it have two possible interpretations: 2. Each child must be accompanied by a parent. 3.A parent is required to accompany all the children. I think the natural reading is the former but I'm not sure about the latter. Thanks in advance.Read More...

dogs know it when...

Hello, In the following sentence is the "it" obligatory? Dogs know it when they are not treated fairly. appleRead More...

a pet animal, he she it

Hello, We use "he" or "she" for someone's pet animal. Does using "it" somehow sound a bit rude? I think "rude" is a strong word, but most owners prefer having their beloved dog referred to as "he" or "she". What do you think? appleRead More...

Fore granted and for granted

Hello Grammar Exchange members. This is my first post on the forum. I do not consider myself to be a grammar expert, however, I am grammar-curious. Here's my consideration: for years I have thought the term "for granted" was actually "fore granted". This afternoon while reading I noticed the spelling error (as I saw it) yet again. Which lead me to search for the term in a dictionary and dictionary of etymology only to find that neither use the term "fore granted". With the meaning of the...Read More...
David, thank you for the response.Read More...
Last Reply By Erin · First Unread Post

Use of the Apostrophe

Hi, everyone. Could you tell me whether the apostrophe is correctly used in the sentence below: Modality is about a speaker’s or a writer’s attitude towards the world. I can't explain it in a grammatical way but I think that the word speaker shouldn't carry the apostrophe. Am I right? I found the sentence in the link below: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/grammar/british-grammar/modal-verbs-and-modality Thank you.Read More...
Hi, David and thanks for your response. Your explanation makes a lot of sense. Hmm...English can be so confusing sometimes! I remember learning that if there were two names in a sentence and if they were co-possessors of something, only the second name would carry the 's , like so: [That's John and Mary's restaurant.] How is this different from Modality is about a speaker’s or a writer’s attitude towards the world? Please help clear my confusion, David. Many thanks for your help.Read More...
Last Reply By gilbert · First Unread Post

reason for/reason that

Hi, everyone on the GE. I think that asking the question " So why was he punished? " would be the most correct way of eliciting the reason for someone's punishment. Would (1) and (2) below be good alternatives to this question? Are they correctly worded? (1) So what was the reason for his punishment? (2) So what was the reason that he was punished? Thanks for your help.Read More...
Hello, David. Thanks for the reply and for pointing out to me that my alternative sentences (1) & (2) would mean that only one (form of) punishment was meted out to this poor fella. I would never have thought of that. You have an uncanny ability to see these things in sentences, David. Thanks a lot for your help.Read More...
Last Reply By gilbert · First Unread Post

subject-verb agreement

The Accessibility of Information For many centuries European science , and knowledge in general, was recorded in Latin—a language that no one spoke any longer and that had to be learned in schools. Very few individuals, probably less than 1 percent, had the means to study Latin enough to read books in that language and therefore to participate in the intellectual discourse of the times. Moreover, few people had access to books, which were handwritten, scarce, and expensive. Can I use...Read More...

amounts of

Cyanotype Toning: Using Botanicals to Tone Blueprints Naturally Blue is a quiet color that encourages consensus and order. go - dyed fabric is washed, tiny a mounts of dye are washed away , and the thread comes with them . What I don't understand is why <amounts> is plural, not singular, though <Amount> is uncountable. Can you help me with this?Read More...
Thank you.Read More...
Last Reply By GBLSU · First Unread Post

Singular or Plural?

I brought up the previous thread. I happened to read this sentence, and wondered why the verb is not plural. Which one is desirable, singular or plural? Thanks in advance. The size, shape and location of transmitter loops is of fundamental importance in the design of both surface and drillhole TEM surveys.Read More...

A wide array of

Hello, 1. Which of the following is correct? a. We are familiar with a wide array of business structure b. We are familiar with a wide array of business structures 2. What is the difference between a wide range of and a wide array ofRead More...
Hi, Tony—The plural is needed ("structures"). "Range" & "array" are synonyms.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

to be-pp

I stood there, waiting for the door to open. I came up with this sentence based on the situation on the subway. What I'd like to know is whether "to be opened" is acceptable instead of "to open" in this context. Plus, I think in this situation "opened' sounds 100 % not right.Read More...
Hi, Dude—Both of the following sentences are perfectly fine: (1) I stood there, waiting for the door to open. (2) I stood there, waiting for the door to be opened. Their meanings differ. In (1), "open" is intransitive. Perhaps the door is an automatic door; the speaker was waiting for the door to swing open by itself. In (2), "be opened" is passive; the speaker was waiting for the door to be opened by someone else, i.e., he was waiting for someone to open the door.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

prepositional phrases

These are questions about the sentence "A." 1) Is "sitting in my desk" an appositive phrase that gives more information about the pronoun "I?" 2) "in my desk" is a prepositional phrase. Does this have any importance to the sentence or is this an appositive that is made up from a prepositional phrase? 3) I assume that "wire tap" is the phrasal verb (main verb) of the sentence and even though there isn't an auxillary verb, is "sitting" the main verb that's governed by the prepositional phrase?Read More...
Thanks again, Gustavo!!Read More...
Last Reply By clueless · First Unread Post

sentential which?

1) They ate everything they killed, for which Shermer's stepfather also displayed culinary skills. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Shermer Is '1' grammatical? If it is, what does 'which' refer to? Gratefully, NaviRead More...
Hello, Navi and Gustavo—Like both of you, I find the relative clause to be problematic in (1); and like you, Navi, I think Gustavo has given an excellent analysis of why that is. I think that the following revision, though a bit cumbersome, would make the connection between the two clauses clearer: 1a) They ate everything they killed, for the cooking of which Shermer's stepfather also displayed culinary skills.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

juxtaposition

The great explosion of scientific creativity in Europe was certainly helped 1. by the sudden spread of information brought about 2. by Gutenberg’s use of movable type in printing and by the legitimation of everyday languages, which rapidly replaced Latin as the medium of discourse. READ Creativity FREE online full book. Page books 45 I am a little bit confused about which is in juxtaposition with the third <by> after <and>, the first one or the second one. I think the second one,...Read More...
Super clear!Read More...
Last Reply By GBLSU · First Unread Post

Make a question with Wh-

Su's
I don't know if these two sentences have the same meaning and both grammatically accepted. 1) What kind of food do you like? 2) What's the kind of food that you like? ++ Additionally, "kind" is a countable noun, so when making a question, should we use its plural form like this: What are kinds of food that you like? Thank you in advance.Read More...
😥 I get it, thank you so muchRead More...
Last Reply By Su's · First Unread Post

turn out

I posted the question about the <prove to> in previous thread. I have a similar question. In the case of <Turn out to be>, does it work the same as <prove>? Are both correct? 1 The design turned out successful. 2 The design turned out a success.Read More...
Thank you for teaching a new thing. Always grateful!Read More...
Last Reply By GBLSU · First Unread Post

to commence with = to start with ????

Hi I have a question on academic writing. When giving the first and most important reason for something, we can say: To start with, ...... Do you think that an English native speaker uses 'to commence with' in the place of 'to start with'? Thank youRead More...
Hi, hope—No, the introductory expression "To start with" cannot be replaced with " To commence with "; however, it can be replaced with "To begin with."Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

curious about why

I learned the word “curious” and made an example sentence using “curious about”. I think I should use noun form after the word “about”. Is it okay to use why, what, why etc. after the word ‘about’? This is the sentence I made and wondering if it's correct. I was curious about why people die.Read More...
Hi, Serena, and welcome to the Grammar Exchange. I agree with Ahmed that your sentence is correct. As he mentions in the thread to which he has linked, you can even delete "about" and say, "I was curious why people die." In your sentence ("I was curious about why people die"), it is not just the word "why" that "about" relates to; it is the entire phrase "why people die," which is an embedded question (an embedded interrogative clause). Embedded interrogative clauses can function as the...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

pronoun

Letters To Lily: On how the world works Can you tell me what the pronoun it refers to? Or, Is it just a cleft clause? We know from everyday experience that we can make useful guesses which usually turn out to be roughly accurate, even if we cannot definitively predict the future. If there were no patterns in the past that continued into the future, the existence of humans and other animals on earth would be impossible. It is on the basis of what we have established about human motivation and...Read More...
Thank you.Read More...
Last Reply By GBLSU · First Unread Post

(have watched - have been watching)

Hello. Could you please help me choose the correct answer? Why? - I (have watched - have been watching) all the weight lifting competitions this year. Thank you.Read More...
Hi, Ahmed Imam Attia, I prefer 'have watched' . I see that the usage of ' all ' here requires the present perfect. It means that you are at the end of the year and the action is complete. The focus (emphasis) is on the result, not the duration or the activity. - I have watched all the weightlifting competitions this year. I am tired of them.Read More...
Last Reply By ahmed_btm · First Unread Post

Please help settle a dispute

My husband said it's "climb a tree" I say "climbed" You can't hear the different pronunciations I don't want to be wrong BUT if I've been spelling/saying it wrong all this time I'd like be corrected. Thank you S KeyRead More...
Hello, S Key, and welcome to the Grammar Exchange. If you want to use the past, you should say "climbed." If a vowel follows, as is the case with "climbed a tree," the phoneme /d/ will be more clearly heard because it will link with the sound of the vowel: "climbed a tree" => /klaim d ətri:/Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

Is our execution making sense?

I am confused whether the word "execution" can only be used for " your execution" only or can be used for "our execution" to imply you and I sign. For example: All I need from you is for you to complete the following information at your convenience and I can get the partnership agreement ready for our execution (you and I sign). Full name: Address: Phone Number:Read More...
Yes. I answered your initial question: I am confused whether the word "execution" can only be used for " your execution" or can be used for "our execution" to imply you and I sign. "Our execution" can indeed be used to imply that "you" and "I" sign.Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

if only

I don't understand why 'if only' is not followed by a clause, but an adverbial phrase? Is there something left out after 'if only'? It is therefore quite clear that these new sources are of considerable importance, if only because of the energy they emit. Space Observatories Jean-Claude PeckerRead More...
It is a big help. Thank you so much.Read More...
Last Reply By GBLSU · First Unread Post

pronouns

Who is the manager? a. It is the tall lady who left the room a few minutes ago. b. She is the tall lady who left the room a few minutes ago. ----------------------------- Who is the manager? c. It is one of the owner's cousins. d, He or she is one of the owner's cousins. Are (a), (b), (c) and (d) correct in these contexts? Many thanks.Read More...
Hi, Azz, I don't think identifying “it” can be used in the examples above because "the manager" is "he" or "she." "It" can be used to introduce specifying predicates, that is, predicates that reveal the identity of an unknown subject . A: There’s someone in the office / on the phone. Who is it ? B: It ’s the manager. In this case, both the question and the answer can be interpreted as reduced cleft sentences: A: There’s someone in the office / on the phone. Who is it that is in the office /...Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

Would or had in the sentence "Now he would think I'd put her up to it"

Hello! I got a little bit confused about the sentence "Now he would think I'd put her up to it". Is it "I had put" or "I would put"? And if both of them are grammatically possible (in general), then what is the difference in meaning between them? Thank you.Read More...
Thank you!Read More...
Last Reply By Phantomstein · First Unread Post

past simple or present perfect (worked - have worked)

Hello. Could you please help me choose the correct answer?- Mr Ali has worked in this school since I (worked - have worked) there. Thank you.Read More...
Hello, Ahmed Imam Attia—Only "worked" works as an answer there, but please note that "since I worked there" implies that the speaker no longer works there. Please also note that there are more precise ways of speaking, such as "Mr. Ali has worked at this school for five years" or "Mr. Ali started working at this school five years ago." The sentence "Mr. Ali has worked at this school since I worked there" says no more than that part of Mr. Ali's time working at the school overlaped with part...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

commas

The second sentence in "A" is the focus and was typed the way it was spoken on the audio. "B" is the same sentence written out to understand the placement of commas as it was explained to me. "C" is my question. A) But over time, that awareness of wrongdoings sort of builds up and you feel compelled to talk about it. And the more you talk about it the more you're ignored, the more you're told it's not a problem, until, eventually, you realize that these things need to be determined by the...Read More...
Thanks, David!!Read More...
Last Reply By clueless · First Unread Post

More recent or more innovations in "more recent innovations"?

More recent innovations in either area tend to spread rapidly to the other (From A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language by Randolf Quirk). Which word does 'more' qualify, 'recent' or 'innovations'? The context shows that 'recent' is the object of it, but is it possible to understand this without the context?Read More...
Thank you, David.Read More...
Last Reply By David Toklikishvili · First Unread Post

in addition to

Hello, everyone, A) Ted is kind. B) He is funny, too. Can I combine above two sentences into one using the prepositional phrase ‘in addition to’ as follows, while I assume ‘in addition’ or ‘as well as’ is much preferred in this context?; 1. Ted is funny in addition to kind. 2. Ted is funny in addition to being kind. 3. Ted is a funny boy in addition to being a kind one. I think 2 and 3 might be acceptable in the above. Would hope to hear your valuable comments.Read More...
Hello, David, really appreciate your help as always.Read More...
Last Reply By deepcosmos · First Unread Post

Are these sentences gramatically natural or correct?

Which sentence of the followings is grammatically correct, focusing on inversion grammar? or is neither of followings grammatically correct?? 1) "From absolute truth to relational truth has changed our approach to scientific knowledge." 2) "From absolute truth to relational truth has our approach to scientific knowledge changed.Read More...
Hello, cristian, and welcome to the Grammar Exchange. Neither sentence works. Sentence (1) is ungrammatical; it is almost always impossible to use a prepositional phrase as the subject of a sentence. Sentence (2) is not ungrammatical, but the inversion around the heavy subject is so unnatural that it may safely be deemed incorrect. Try these instead: 3) Our approach to scientific knowledge has changed from absolute truth to relational truth. 4) It is from absolute truth to relational truth...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Past simple indication

1- I watched the match at 7:30. 2- I lived in Yale in 2012. Does the past simple in both sentences mean that the action began at that time and may be in progress? Or it had began before and finished at that time?Read More...
Accordingly, we can say that the past simple gives only the start but the action itself finished. Mum cooked lunch at 2. = She bagan cooking at 2, and she already finished some time in the past. Am I right, sir?Read More...
Last Reply By Essam Nasr · First Unread Post

Full stop or comma after No?

Hello, everyone. I was poking around grammar websites when I chanced upon a discussion on whether we should use a full stop (period) or a comma after the word No. Here's the link to that forum: [https://english.stackexchange.com/questions/300421/comma-or-period-after-no] And this is what I read: According to Margie Wakeman Wells: Court Reporting Resource, Books and Seminars on Good Grammar and Punctuation , period should be placed in this case: When the words after yes and no “echo” the...Read More...
Hello there, Gustavo. Ah, okay, now I get it! That was a perfectly clear answer to my question. Thank you so much.Read More...
Last Reply By gilbert · First Unread Post

a minor question

I have a minor question. It is about the sentence "it's no good crying about her failure". If we want to mention "who" cries about her failure in this structure, how can we do? Can we say "it's no good us crying about her failure"? I would really appreciate your response.Read More...
Thank you so much for your quick and reliable response. Those complex structures are worth learning!Read More...
Last Reply By mika · First Unread Post
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