@Gustavo, Co-Moderator posted:
In the pattern "be made + V-ing" as in "The movie was made using a lot of special effects," the participial phrase is to be understood as an adverbial of manner (How was the movie made?):
4) The movie was made by using a lot of special effects.
If you want to use only a preposition, you can use "with":
5) The movie was made with a lot of special effects.
Hi, Gustavo, appreciate your comment.
About your 4) The movie was made by using a lot of special effects. can I paraphrase it into, "(By) using a lot of special effects, the movie was made."? Then can we say, the verb 'using' in the free adjunct denotes an action to bring about a result described in the main clause like an adverbial clause(a participle clause)?
And the 'by' in this pattern is allowed to be left out freely in any context?