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Reply to "be made "ing""

Hi, Deepcosmos,

@deepcosmos posted:

We very often see the pattern - "be made ~ing" such in "The movie was made using  a lot of special effects.".

Which will be the correct analysis for this pattern in the following s ?;

1) The movie was made when using  a lot of special effects. (a kind of adverbial clause with the conjunction - 'when' left out)
2) The movie was made of using  a lot of special effects. (the preposition 'of' has been left out, which shows the construction material)
3) The movie was made by means of using  a lot of special effects. (the phrase - 'by means of' has been left out)

In the pattern "be made + V-ing" as in "The movie was made using a lot of special effects," the participial phrase is to be understood as an adverbial of manner (How was the movie made?):

4) The movie was made by using a lot of special effects.

If you want to use only a preposition, you can use "with":

5) The movie was made with  a lot of special effects.

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