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function of ‘diminishing’

Hello, everyone,

“In the workplace, automation’s focus on enhancing speed and efficiency — a focus determined by the profit motive rather than by any particular concern for people’s well-being — often has the effect of removing complexity from jobs, diminishing the challenge they present and hence the engagement they promote.”

For the function of underlined ‘diminishing’ above which will be proper parsing below?;

1) present participle leading the participle clause meaning RESULT,

2) present participle, which combines ‘which’ and ‘diminishes’ to make a reduced relative clause.

At moment I prefer 2), since the implied subject of ‘diminishing’ is, I feel, the whole clause - “automation’s focus on enhancing speed and efficiency often has the effect of removing complexity from jobs”, which doesn’t coincide with the subject of main clause - “automation’s focus on enhancing speed and efficiency” in order to be a participle clause.

Would hope to hear your various opinions.

*source;

https://books.google.co.kr/boo...iency%22&f=false

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