@Andrew Van Wagner posted:
"The past perfect is redundant"
So what's the point of it?
I meant that the past perfect is often redundant in a context in which a past-time sequencing adverbial, such as "after" or "before," is in play. There are other contexts in which the past perfect is genuinely needed (not redundant):
- When I visited post-USSR Russia, I had retired.
Notice that that sentence cannot do without "had." If you instead said, "When I visited post-USSR Russia, I retired," the sentence would indicate that you retired at the time at which you visited post-USSR Russia, NOT before that time.