look at, look up

Hello,

We can say, "Look at the word" but not "Look the word at".

However, we can say "Look up the word " and "Look the word up" or "Look it up".

Why is this?

I've read somewhere that "at" is a preposition but "up" is not but adverb, but this doesn't solve my problem

I almost always decide wether or not I can put the word between the verb and the preposition  just by a hunch.

Could anyone tell me how to explain this point of grammar? Thank you.

 

 

 

 

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