Reply to "Noun Phrase"

9''. A popular spot for the youth, organizing a wide range of activities throughout the year, the community center is a great place to hang out.

Although its function is adverbial, the NP "A popular spot for the youth" is a sort of loose subject complement within the predicate (notice it comes from "Being a popular spot for the youth") which does not have sufficient syntactic hierarchy to accept the addition of a non-restrictive participial post-modifier. Even at first sight that comma before "organizing" looks really confusing. I think we should eliminate it. Now that I reread (9'), I would add "and" only if "being" were used at the beginning so as to ensure grammatical parallelism:

9'''. Being a popular spot for the youth and organizing a wide range of activities throughout the year, the community center is a great place to hang out.

10: The house is only a 5 minute bike ride from the school.  

--> I would say "only a 5 minute bike ride from the school" is one NP? Is that right?

Yes, it is one NP with "ride" as its head.

12: It is the dream of my father to travel to China. 

Only "of my father" is a postmodifier of "dream." "to travel to China" is an infinitival clause functioning as the real subject anticipated by "it." Notice we can say:

12'. To travel to China is the dream of my father.

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