Reply to "Noun Phrase"

Welcome to the Grammar Exchange, NPEXP (does that stand for "noun phrase expert," by any chance? )

I'll give you my view:

Is 'so much about languages I would like to understand' a noun phrase? 

To me, it is a noun phrase, with "much" being a pronoun, similar to "a lot." Actually, "there + be" needs to be followed by a nominal construction.

Is 'more than five months' a noun phrase (as part of a prepositional phrase?) 

I think you are right: "more than five months" is the object to the preposition "for." In my opinion, "months" is the head and "more than five," a premodifier.

Is 'my sister playing the piano all the time' a NP or a non-finite adverbial clause? 

That is an absolute construction functioning as a non-finite adverbial clause, with a subject ("my sister") and a predicate ("playing the piano all the time").

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