sentence construction questions

I have some questions about the following sentences.
(1)The sick can claim 80 percent of their wage up to a certain level, at an annual cost to the taxpayer of about 105 billion kroner($15billion).

(2)This is roughly as much as the country spends on defense, foreign aid, higher education and research put together.

In (1) the phrase "up to a certain level" indicates what? Level of what?

Can the latter half of the sentence be rephrased as "at an annual cost of about 105 billion kroner($15billion) to the taxpayer."?

I have no trouble with the meaning of (2), but I would insert "what" before "the country" thus rephrasing it as " This is roughly as much as what the country spends...."
Is the original sentence correct as it is without "what"?

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