"Somehow, when I was in high school, [the conditioning of society got to me] and I went looking for a job—because that’s what everyone said I should do."
The verb "condition" is not closely related to the noun "condition." Here's the definition from the Longman dictionary:
condition verb [transitive] to make a person or an animal think or behave in a certain way by influencing or training them over a period of time → conditioning
People are conditioned by society.
In my opinion, your sentence should be interpreted slightly differently as follows: Somehow, when I was in high school I perceived/became subject to the influence of society and went looking for a job -- because that's what everyone said I should do.