@Gustavo, Contributor posted:
David, would you mind telling us your opinion about a sentence like this one?:
- The criminal is suspected of being aided by other individuals in his last two robberies.
I personally prefer The criminal is suspected of having been aided ... or The criminal is suspected of relying on the aid of ..., but your view will prevail.
I have the same preference, Gustavo, and I agree with the observation you made in your third post that the perfect is highly desirable in the nonfinite clause when that clause is stative—or habitual—and reference is being made in that clause to a time preceding the time of the main verb. Consider:
(4) He is suspected of taking the money.
(5) He is suspected of having taken the money.
(6) He is suspected of taking money.
(7) He is suspected of having taken money.
The two example pairs are identical aside from "the" being used in (4) and (5) but not in (6) and (7). But that is a key difference. Sentences (4) and (5) are synonymous; the perfect ("having taken") is not needed. "The money" refers to a definite amount, which must, therefore, have been taken in the past.
Sentences (6) and (7) are not synonymous. Taking money (NOT "the money") can be something that occurs on an ongoing basis. A thief can take money and then keep on taking it. So the perfect is needed if past-time reference is involved. Those two sentences may be paraphrased as below:
(6a) It is suspected that he takes money.
(7a) It is suspected that he took money / has taken money.