@David, Moderator posted:
The problem with your interpretation (1) is that it parses the "from"-PP as an NP adjunct, that is, as a modifier of "information." You are saying that you think "She withheld information from the police" means that she withheld certain information, namely, information (that came) from the police!
That is not what the construction means at all, though of course it is possible to imagine that meaning. If you want the real meaning, though, the "from"-PP in the "withhold NP1 from NP2" is a complement within the VP, just as it is in the "keep NP from VP-ing" and "stop NP from VP-ing" constructions.
OK, your interpretation (2) is fine; indeed, you can actually replace "She prohibited them from doing X" with "She prohibited their doing X." As to (1), your "not to" hypothesis is OK purely from a semantic standpoint. BUT PLEASE NOTE: YOU CANNOT REPLACE "FROM" WITH "NOT TO." If you do, you will produce unintelligible garbage, just as you did in your third post above.
Hello, David--you have really been enlightening me on the sea of English like a huge lighthouse.
Thank you million times.