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Reply to "Written versus spoken English"

Hi, Mark,

In formal written English, [apostrophe + s] is normally reserved for possessives. However, in less formal English, we do sometimes use [apostrophe + s] to express a contraction of "is" or "has" in addition to the possessive:

(a) If your dog's taken away, don't be alarmed. (contraction of "is")
(b) If your dog's been taken away, don't be alarmed. (contraction of "has")
(c) If your dog's bone is missing, don't be alarmed. (possessive)

Last edited by David, Moderator
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