and mention that 'although' introduces a subordinate clause, so follows the rules of complex sentences.
I'd say that, apart from introducing a subordinate clause, "although" is generally used at the beginning of the sentence:
- Although I liked the story, my sister didn't.
Instead, "but" and "however" express contrast afterwards:
- My sister didn't like the story, but I did. - My sister didn't like the story. However, I did.
I'm not sure what you mean by "the rules of complex sentences." Not to confuse our learners, please notice, by the way, that there is an "it" missing in your statement above: "Although" introduces a subordinate clause, so it follows the rules of complex sentences.
David, I was wondering whether or not you would like to see real proof without blowing out your page. Descriptive grammar relies on large sets of real data.
We regularly cite corpus data here; whether we do depends on what we are discussing and whether we think corpus data may be useful in making a point. You are welcome to use "real data" here, but you are not welcome to advertise.
Gustavo, the ellipsis of the subject is interesting here. Let's explore this and any exceptions.
My sister didn't like the story, so needs to find a new one. (incorrect?)
My sister didn't like the story but read it anyway.
My sister didn't like the story and hated the main character.
I found 300 examples on the internet of ', so needs'
On page 928 of A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language, Quirk et al make a clear distinction between pure coordinators (and, or, but) and what they call semi- or quasi-coordinators (e.g. so, for) under item 13.19 (the bolds are mine):
13.19 Although Table 13.18 demonstrates the absence of a clear divide between coordinators and other linking items, we can justify the traditional inclusion of but among the coordinators and the exclusion offor and so that or yet and so by pointing to two facts which distinguish but from these words: (i) it behaves like a coordinator with respect to subject ellipsis [...] Similarly, yet, so, neither and nor are best treated as conjuncts which are nevertheless more coordinator-like than more typical conjuncts such as however and therefore. These words which share some of the distinguishing features of coordinators may be called SEMI-COORDINATORS (also QUASI-COORDINATORS).
It follows that "but" admits subject ellipsis (just like and and or) but "so" does not.
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