Hello
Could you please tell me when I should use
as in,as and like ?
is it OK to replace the three with each other in the following sentences?

1- large carnivores, as/like/as in the bear or lion.
2- I like flowers like/as in rose.(in this case why as is wrong).
3- As in/like previous year, we assume that you are not making any contribution to the society so that we are not seeking your contribution this year.
4- Repeat these five steps,as in/as/like the last exercise.
5- He has a lot of hobbies, like/as/as in painting, skiing..

Thank you very much.
Last edited {1}
Original Post
Hello, Majid:

I've put in the correct completions:

1- large carnivores, like the bear or lion.

'Like' here means 'such as,' or 'for example.' 'Like' in this sentence is a preposition.
_______

2- I like flowers like the rose.

'Like' here means 'such as,' or 'for example.' 'Like' in this sentence is a preposition.

'As' is a conjunction, and would need to be followed by a subject and a verb in a clause.
_______

3- As in the previous year, we assume that you are not making any contribution to the society so that we are not seeking your contribution this year.

'As' is a conjunction with 'we did' after it omitted. The sentence would be this:

As (we did) in the previous year, we assume...'
_______

4- Repeat these five steps,as in the last exercise.

'As' is a conjunction with 'you did' omitted. The sentence would be this: Repeat these five steps as (you did) in the last exercise.
_______

5- He has a lot of hobbies,like painting, skiing..

'Like' is a preposition here, and means 'such as' or 'for example.'
Thank you Dear Rachel for your great and enlightening help.

Please notice these sentences which have been quoted from different dictionaries:

-large carnivores, as the bear or lion.
-various trees, as oak or pine
-Some flowers, as the rose, require special care.
What really keeps confusing me,however, is the meaning of AS in the following dictionaries: http:
[URL=http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/as]http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/as
and http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/as in which it has been defined as for instance and of course as an adverb .
But when I ask natives they believe that AS is not a good choice for the above contexts.
Does it mean that AS in this sense and (grammatical)role is not common in both speaking and writing English?
Last edited by majid
Yes, Majid, 'as' serves as a preposition in your example sentences in the dictionary. This is confusing because, while possible, this use of 'as' is not used much nowadays. It used to be. In this case, 'as' means 'such as.'

Here is an entry from the LDOCE on this subject. The usage note at the bottom advises us not to use 'as' as a preposition. http://www.ldoceonline.com/dictionary/like_1

And here are some interesting points in the American Heritage Dictionary. Scroll down to see the Usage Note and Our Living Language:
http://www.answers.com/topic/like

So, while it is actually possible to use 'as' to mean 'such as,' this is an unusual and jarring word to use with this meaning.
Rachel said:

quote:
The usage note at the bottom advises us not to use 'as' as a preposition.


In what cases, Rachel?

I find these examples in the
Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged
to be perfect:

his appearance as Hamlet

he comes home at six as a rule

eager for power as power

more interested in ... attitudes as attitudes than he is in their definition and embodiment in aesthetic forms
Right, Jerry. I should have said ‘as’ used as a preposition to mean ‘such as’ is unusual and jarring in today’s usage.

All of your example sentences have ‘as’ as a preposition to mean something like ‘equals,’ as in this definition at ‘as’ as a preposition in the LDOCE:

• used to say what job, duty, use, or appearance someone or something has:

As a parent, I feel that more should be done to protect our children.
A flat stone was used as a table.
Dad dressed up as Santa Claus.


I'm recasting an entry here from the Grammar Exchange Archives. In it, you will see examples and descriptions of 'as' used in the manner of 'as' in your sentences:

Q:

When do you use like as opposed to as?
Marla Yackshaw
YACKSHMS@pwcs.edu

A:

Like and as have these principal distinctions:

Like—used as a preposition—is followed by a noun, a pronoun, a gerund (-ing form of the verb,(used as a noun), or a noun clause.

As—used as a conjunction—introduces a subordinate clause (remember that a clause contains a verb).

* Here are some uses of like.

1) Like—used here is a preposition. It shows similarity:

• The climate in Havana is like the climate in Miami.

• He works like a dog.

• Do you remember Princess Diana? My sister looks just like her.

• I love sailing on open water on a beautiful day—it's like being in paradise.

• Oh! You got lost? That's like what happened to me.


2) Like can be used to mention examples to such as or for example:

• A lot of older people, like my grandparents, for example, are enjoying their retirement by traveling all over the world.

• There are many things to do at the resort, like swimming, snorkeling, and sailing.
(It's possible to use like and such as -- (NOT as alone) -- interchangeably in the two sentences above; used in this way to introduce examples, like is somewhat less formal.)

* Here are some uses of as.

1) As—a subordinating conjunction here—can be used to show similarity in a subordinate clause:

• Treat people as you want them to treat you.

• Benny is an excellent long-distance runner, just as his father was.

2) As can be used to indicate that one event was happening at the same time as another:

• The president arrived just as all the guest were leaving.

As the man got off the elevator, he was arrested by two policemen.

3) Asas is used in comparisons:
• Benny runs as fast as his father did.

• Benny runs as fast as his father. (You can use the noun only; the verb is understood).
_______

Problem area: As can also be used as a preposition meaningequal to; it is different from like, which meanssimilar, but not equal to. Look at these sentences:

• Ferguson worked as a teacher in a rural area for twenty years.
(He was a teacher, or, he worked in the capacity of a teacher)

• Mary's not a nurse, she's a nurse's assistant, but she works like a nurse, with almost the same responsibility, and doing the same things.

As the president, he called for peace between the warring nations.
(In the capacity of president, he called for peace)

Like the president, he called for peace between the warring nations.
(In a manner like the president's, another person called for peace).

• Who used my knife as a screwdriver?
(My knife = a screwdriver)

• A knife is like a screwdriver in some ways.
(A knife is similar to a screwdriver.)

Which person would you prefer to see when you are sick: A person who works as a doctor, or a person who works like a doctor?
_______

Confusing area: like, informally, can be used as a conjunction, to introduce a subordinate clause, to mean as if or as though. Some strict grammarians, however, disapprove of using like in this way:

• I felt like I had been run over by a truck.

• She looked like she might faint.

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