I'm having trouble deciding how to punctuate and capitalize commands and other single words of dialogue:

1a. When I say "start," I want you to...

or

1b. When I say "Start," I want you to... Also, does this need a comma?

2a. Martha and Bill waved their hands, yelling "Stop!" as loudly as possible.

2b. Martha and Bill waved their hands, yelling "stop!" as loudly as possible. Does this need a comma?

3a. He made eye contact, calling out "Taxi!"

3b. He made eye contact, calling out "taxi!" Are any commas necessary here?

Are the rules here inflexible? It's causing me a great deal of headache!

Ian

 

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