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Can one use
a. He jumped out of the car moving.
instead of
b. He jumped out of the car while it was moving.
?

Can one use
c. What I saw was like a car moving.
instead of
d. What I saw was like a car that was moving.
?

I think (a) does not work, and (b) does. In (a) 'moving' can modify the subject of the sentence but not 'the car', however in (b) 'moving' modifies 'car. That's my feeling.

Many thanks

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@azz posted:

Can one use
a. He jumped out of the car moving.
instead of
b. He jumped out of the car while it was moving.
?
. . .

I think (a) does not work, and (b) does. In (a) 'moving' can modify the subject of the sentence but not 'the car', however in (b) 'moving' modifies 'car. That's my feeling.

Hi, Azz—In (a), it is possible for "moving" to modify "car" rather than the sentence subject ("he"). However, that does not mean that (a) can mean (b). It means that it can be equivalent to "He jumped out of the car that was moving"—e.g.:

(a') There were two cars. One was moving and one wasn't. He jumped out of the car moving.

Of course, if he jumped out of the car that was moving, he jumped out of that car while it was moving. But that doesn't mean that to say that he jumped out of a car that was moving is to say that he jumped out of a car while it was moving.

@azz posted:

Can one use
c. What I saw was like a car moving.
instead of
d. What I saw was like a car that was moving.
?

Yes, that substitution works.

Thank you David.

Yes, I had completely overlooked that possibility. Very good point.

I have a follow-up question, if I may.

e. I talked to your brother dancing,

f. I talked to your brother dancing over there.

Could these be used instead of:

I talked to your brother who is dancing/who is dancing over there.

i.e.

I talked to that brother of yours who is dancing/who is dancing over there.

?

I think (e) could only mean I was dancing when I talked to your brother. It seems to me that (f) might be ambiguous...

Many thanks.

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