I'll have to think again if "from the school" is a postmodifier of the NP or a separate phrase.
To tell you the truth, NPEXP, I'm not sure myself. Even in the question "How far is the house from the school?" (which I used to try to show that the prepositional phrase could be separated from the rest of the noun phrase), from the school can be connected with how far: How far from the school is the house?
11'': The house, situated only a 5 minute bike ride from the school, is very big.
"only a 5 minute bike ride" and "from the school" work as a unit, in this case as an adverbial of place of the past participle "situated." The whole structure is a reduced relative clause (which is situated...)
11''': The house is within walking distance to the school.
The same comments I made in relation to "from the school" would apply here.
15: The school is a great place for children who are eager to learn.
15': For children who are eager to learn the school is a great place.
I find "for children who are eager to learn" to be semantically and functionally related to "a great place" (a great place for them, not for anyone). In (15´), which can be paraphrased as "In the case of children...," the syntactic connection is not so clear.
Syntactic analysis is largely dependent on word order. A change in word order may lead to a change in how we parse an otherwise similar or comparable sentence.