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"Its development starting twelve years ago, social entrepreneurship is quite new to Georgia."

"Its development having started twelve years ago, social entrepreneurship is quite new to Georgia."

Which of the two sentences are correct?

And how would it be in the past and past perfect tenses?

"Its development starting twelve years ago, social entrepreneurship was quite new to Georgia."

"Its development having started twelve years ago, social entrepreneurship was quite new to Georgia."



"Its development starting twelve years ago, social entrepreneurship had been quite new to Georgia."

"Its development having started twelve years ago, social entrepreneurship had been quite new to Georgia."



If I elide "gerund" after the first "present" in the phrase written in the subject field of this post, will it have the same meaning?

"present gerund or present perfect gerund" = "present or present perfect gerund" ???

Last edited by David Toklikishvili
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Hi, David,

"Its development starting twelve years ago, social entrepreneurship is quite new to Georgia."

"Its development having started twelve years ago, social entrepreneurship is quite new to Georgia."

Which of the two sentences are correct?

And how would it be in the past and past perfect tenses?

"Its development starting twelve years ago, social entrepreneurship was quite new to Georgia."

"Its development having started twelve years ago, social entrepreneurship was quite new to Georgia."

I prefer the perfect form, but I don't like the absolute construction because the referent of "its" is to be found later (the development of social entrepreneurship).

I prefer:

- Having started to develop twelve years ago, social entrepreneurship is quite new to Georgia.

With the past tense, I would change "ago" to "before":

- Having started to develop twelve years before, social entrepreneurship was quite new to Georgia.

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