This is the third and last of the questions posed to Betty Azar by a teacher of ESL.
3) What governs the use of "having + past participle"?
For instance, the sentence "He decided to paint his house because he found a small hole on the ceiling" could be reduced to "Finding a small
hole on the ceiling, he decided to paint his house" but I don't think "They decided to get married because they won the lottery" can be
reduced to "Winning the lottery, they decided to get married." It sounds much better to say, "Having won the lottery, ..."
Betty Azar replies:
(3) The answer here has something to do with the actions of the verbs happening at the same time or different times, and when it's necessary for sake of meaning to show they happened at different times, the "having + past participle" structure needs to be used.