Here is the second of three questions put to Betty Azar by a teacher of ESL. Betty responded briefly, then referred each question to the Grammar Exchange team for a more detailed answer. That answer will be posted tomorrow.
2) Can adverb clauses with "although" be reduced? Take for example, "The student decided to drop the class although he needed the credits."
I've found one textbook that says this can be reduced to "Although needing these credits, the student decided to cut class." However, "Despite needing these credits,..." seems to sound better.
Betty Azar replies:
(2) Use of "although" in reduced phrases is possible but corpus studies would show that it is not a frequent construction. Other ways of saying the same thing (as in your sentence with "despite") are preferred. That's what corpus studies tell us -- that even though a structure is possible, native speakers have lots of idiomatic preferences for which one "sounds" best.