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Hello all, I have a question about the placement of the word "required" in the following sentence: "It is a pleasure working with dedicated students who/that put in the time and energy required to make progress." Ok, now I am going to flip you grammar freaks something to chew on: why is the word "required" in that last sentence after "time and energy" . . . is it an adverb modifying "put in"? because on a gut level it feels like an adjective describing "time and energy" if so, it is in the wrong place, or no? What am I missing here??

Original Post

Hello, Matteo Fiori, and welcome to the Grammar Exchange.

I think you should revise your title:

rogue adjective or adverb?

I'm not sure what you meant to say with "rogue."

I have a question about the placement of the word "required" in the following sentence: "It is a pleasure working with dedicated students who/that put in the time and energy required to make progress." Ok, now I am going to flip you grammar freaks something to chew on: why is the word "required" in that last sentence after "time and energy" . . . is it an adverb modifying "put in"? because on a gut level it feels like an adjective describing "time and energy" if so, it is in the wrong place, or no?

"Required" is a past participle and the phrase it introduces can be analyzed as a reduced relative clause:

- It is a pleasure working with dedicated students who/that put in the time and energy that is/are required to make progress. (Both "is" and "are" are possible depending on whether you consider "time and energy" as a lexical unit or not.)

When complementized by an infinitive of purpose as is the case above, it is usual to find the past participle after the noun. However, when used alone the participle can also be found before the noun or nouns it modifies:

- It is a pleasure working with dedicated students who/that put in the required time and energy.

Last edited by Gustavo, Co-Moderator

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