Thank you both very much,
The problem seems to be sentence '3'. At first, I really thought it could work, although I knew that I was sort of pushing things! The more I think about it, the more I have doubts. Gustavo doesn't seem to have a particular problem with it, but David does.
If I understand David's reply correctly, the problem with '3' is 'her'. That word implies that the ring did really belong to her. But then we learn that it didn't. There seems to be a contradiction. I thought that the meaning would be obvious and the contradiction would be dismissed as irrelevant. But that doesn't seem to be the case. The least one can say is that the contradiction does have a jarring effect.
When I came up with that sentence I was wondering whether one could interpret 'her ring' as 'the one she had at that time'. That one doesn't seem to be entirely satisfactory.
Being hard-headed, I've tried to come up with other examples where the contradiction seems less obvious to me. I wonder if the following examples work. I really had to stretch my imagination and invent proper contexts for them. Without the contexts they might end up looking exactly like '3'.
I understand that I am going off topic here. The issue is no longer the 'ed' form of verbs. We're focusing on possessive adjectives. (The truth is that I had crammed two questions into one, and complicated matters. We had two topics from the get-go!! )
My 'theory' now is that 'possession' is a relative concept. There are certain things that can be considered to be one's if one has them at the point we're speaking of. The ring is out. That one is problematic. But I am going to go on a limb one more time.
Anyway, here goes:
4) I grabbed his shirt, which he had stolen from my brother. (the shirt he was wearing)
5) I noticed that he was wearing Tim's watch. I grabbed him by the lapels of his jacket and ended up tearing it. Little did I know that his jacket was stolen too.
6) The robbers had planned everything. They haven't left the smallest clue for us. We have their truck, but their truck was stolen. It won't lead us to them.