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Hi, Essam Nasr,

@Essam Nasr posted:

Hello everyone. Firstly, I am so grateful to all those who are working on this forum.

Choose the correct answer:

- He no longer smokes as he ......

a. used to

b. used to do

c. would do

I think the correct choice is (b), but what about a and c? I am not sure of my answer.Please guide me.

I see that there are two possible answers here: a and b. 'To' can be used instead of the whole infinitive of a repeated verb. (See Swan, 3rd edition, page 163). 'C' doesn't work, because the time must be established in the past and also the verb 'smoke' doesn't work with 'would' with this meaning.

Last edited by ahmed_btm
@Essam Nasr posted:

Doesn't "no longer" indicate a contrast between what is present and what is past? Hence, there is no need to provide a time reference. Or is it necessary to establish a past time frame in the same sentence?

Yes, Essam Nasr, it does, but, unlike "used to," "would" requires a time adverbial. In this old thread, we can read:

From LG Alexander Longman:

'Would' can be used in place of 'used to,' but, like the simple past, it always requires a time reference. We often use it to talk about regular activities, particularly in narrative, or when we are reminiscing.

Surfing the Internet, I found a similar explanation in a book entitled "Active Grammar Level 3" by Mark Lloyd and Jeremy Day (Cambridge University Press):

Additionally, I found a comment here:

With ‘would’, a time reference is usually given, whereas with 'used to' it is not. Consider the following:

A: Do you go to the gym?
B: No, I used to go, but not anymore.

It doesn’t seem natural in any way to use ‘would’ instead of ‘used to’ here.


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Last edited by Gustavo, Co-Moderator

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