Hello, Ahmed Bendary, and welcome to the Grammar Exchange!

Ahmed Bendary posted:

Is it correct to say:

Michael could go to the theatre on condition that / provided that he was home by six.

Or these two expressions(on condition that/provided that) are only followed by present tenses in conditional sentences?

Yes, those sentences (i.e., those two versions of the same sentence) are correct. The present tense ("on condition that he is" / "provided that he is") is not even an option in that sentence. I think you meant to say the present subjunctive: "on condition that he be" / "provided that he be." The present subjunctive is possible; however, it is rather old-fashioned in this syntactic context. The most natural choice here is the past tense.

Mr Bendary,

I completely agree with David's answers, in regard to the questions you actually asked.  However, I'm not entirely sure that what you asked was really what you meant to ask.

1a: Michael could go to the theatre on condition that he was home by six.
1b: Michael could go to the theatre provided that he was home by six.

Both of your examples refer to events or states in the past.  What Michael is allowed to do today doesn't enter into it.  If we want to talk about what Michael wants to do today, we need to change "could" to "can" or "may":

2a: Michael may go to the theatre on condition that he be home by six.
2b: Michael can go to the theatre provided that he is home by six.
2c: Michael can go to the theatre as long as he is home by six.

Various other permutations are possible, of course.

DocV

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