I don't use #1 here (of course, it works in certain circumstances) because it does indicate an occurrence continuing, at least, into the immediate past.

The bruises might not be recent at all. I mean in case of #1, it would have had to be the moment before, but is most unlikely.

 

Correct me if I am wrong.

Freeguy posted:

A: Oh, You have some bruises on your face. _____?
B: Richard hit me.

1) What has happened 
2) What happened

Which one is better?

Hi, Freeguy,

"What happened?" works much better than "What has happened?" here. Even without the first sentence, we would say, "What happened to you?"

The question is inquiring after the cause of the bruises, of course. Here is a context in which the present perfect would work:

  • What has happened so far?

You could use that sentence if you were, say, starting to watch a movie with someone after he or she had already begun watching it.

Couldn't agree more. 

My colleague believes this question matches the following explanation (from the book "The Good Grammar Book", written by Michael Swan):

 

When we first give news, we often use the present perfect. When we give or ask for more past details, we change to the simple past.

 

Example: A plane has crashed in Yorkshire.

Answer: It came down in a field outside York.

 

To me, what Professor Swan precisely pointed out here has nothing to do with the subject question. What do you think, sir?

Freeguy posted:
To me, what Professor Swan precisely pointed out here has nothing to do with the subject question. What do you think, sir?

I agree that Swan's advice there provides no justification for using the present perfect in the answer to the quiz question you have presented. The speaker comments on the bruises. That something has happened which caused the bruises is part of the context. The speaker is wondering what happened.

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