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I am not sure whether he will come. I am not sure if he will come. Are both sentences the same?Read More...

compound adjectives

Hi, everyone I just need to express my gratitude to all those working on this forum as they provide me and others with valuable information, so thank you so much. I was surfing the net for information about compound adjectives, one of the topics that I haven't studied. I came across this site: https://www.englishgrammar101.com/module-6/modifiers-adjectives-and-adverbs/lesson-3/compound-adjectives. There I read the following: 1- The slowly moving train blocked the traffic. 2- The slow-moving...Read More...
Hi, Rasha Assem, ‘Slowly’ an adverb that modifies the verb, i.e. the train that was moving slowly (temporary case). ‘Slow moving’ is related to the train itself. It was slow. This is what your link ( https://www.englishgrammar101..../compound-adjectives ) is trying to explain. Unlike your link, I see that ‘slow’ in ‘slow-moving’ doesn’t have to be an adjective. It could be classified as ‘an adverb + a participle’. You can find a similar example in ‘Advanced Grammar in Use’, page ‘138’. It...Read More...
Last Reply By ahmed_btm · First Unread Post

"have been act after act", "has been act after act", "have been acts after acts"

Sorry, I'm new here and far from an expert grammarian. I'm wrestling with the correct way to handle the phrase "X after X" as perhaps a singular collection or a plural. I see that X could itself be something plural or singular and in either case "X after X" when taken as a phrase implies more than one. I feel a bit embarrassed, but I'm lost. The only option below that I immediately recognize as incorrect is (d): (a) There have been betrayal after betrayal (b) There have been betrayals after...Read More...
Hello @ahmed_btm and thank you for your reply to my post. I appreciate your greeting and welcome to the forum.Read More...
Last Reply By OldDog · First Unread Post

as

In this paragraph: (1) The twenty-first centrury is the age of information and knowledge It is a century that is characterized by knowledge as the important resource that gains competitive advantage for companies. source from : Year 2020 June Mock Test for KSAT #22 (full paragraph is in the attachment) Q. I'm not quite sure what is the meaning for the red highlighted, especially because of 'as the important resource.' First, because it is in 'It that emphasis' phrase and passive voice, which...Read More...
I agree that the addition of "which is regarded" makes the sentence unnecessarily wordy. When used in the passive according to the second acceptation above, "be characterized by" can be paraphrased as "have as a typical quality or feature": Active voice: Knowledge as the important resource that gains competitive advantage for companies characterizes the 21st century = Knowledge as the important resource that gains competitive advantage for companies is a typical quality/feature of the 21st...Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

Countable/Uncountable Noun

Hello, everyone. Is there a reason why birdsong cannot be pluralised while birdcalls can? I tried looking for dictionary definitions online and ended up 'learning' that birdcall can be spelt as two separate words. Collins has birdcall in British English and bird call in American English in one search that I did. But when I did another search, it gave me another page that showed birdcall for BrE and also birdcall (single word) for AmE. Aiyo! So confusing! Merriam-Webster's (American...Read More...
I am not sure there is a "reason" per se, but I imagine that "birdsong" has come to mean the music itself as opposed to the individual "songs" sung by birds. Viewed in this way, the word cannot be pluralised, since it is now felt to be a mass noun referring to the "music of birds".Read More...
Last Reply By MlleSim · First Unread Post

I will sacrifice whatever is necessary to be the best.

Hi How should I parse this sentence, especially for the part 'to be the best'? 1) I will sacrifice [whatever is necessary to be the best] (in this parsing, 'to be the best' modifies 'necessary' or the whole 'whatever is necessary') 2) I will sacrifice [whatever is necessary] to be the best. (in this parsing, 'to be the best' modifies 'will sacrifice' or the whole 'I will sacrifice whatever is necessary') 3) Both of them are plausible depending on the speaker's intention. So, Q1. 'to be the...Read More...
Thank you, DavidRead More...
Last Reply By WinD · First Unread Post

the same

Hi, everyone and thanks for your help I know that I can say: Max and Jack are (of) the same height. and thanks to this thread https://thegrammarexchange.infopop.cc/topic/of-the-same-height My question is: Can I say 'Max and Jack have the same height.'Read More...
Hello, Rasha—Yes, you can say, "Max and Jack have the same height." It means the same thing as "Max and Jack are (of) the same height."Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

"In The Way That" Vs "In The Same Way As" Vs "How"?

Is there any difference between 'in the same way' and 'in the way'? Can I replace them with 'how'? 1- I completed my work in the way he did. 2- I completed my work how he did. 3- I completed my work in the same way as he did.Read More...
Hi, Subhajit —No, there is no real difference in meaning between those three sentences. Please note, however, that you have used what is called "sloppy ellipsis." Technically, "as/how he did" in your examples indicates "as/how he completed my work." Thus, you might consider saying this instead: I completed my work (in) the (same) way / as/how he completed his .Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Modals to use for the future passive

Hello, What other models than (will/may/might/could) could we use for the future passive, I would be grateful if you put them in examples. Thank you in advance.Read More...
And also: The bridge is expected to be completed soon. The bridge is likely to be completed soon. The bridge is due to be completed soon. The bridge is bound to be completed soon. The bridge is on the verge of being completed. I think Meriem will be happy to see all these variants.Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

Use of "which is"

Hello. I'm seeing the use of "which is" disappearing. Is the second example grammatically acceptable? Example: The company, which is a subdivision of ACME, posted earnings today. Example: The company, a subdivision of ACME, posted earnings today. Thanks.Read More...
Hello, Irish Girl, and welcome to the Grammar Exchange. Both sentences are correct. In (A), you have a relative clause after "the company," while in (B) you have an apposition. When the verb in the relative clause is be , it may be a good decision to use an apposition ( which is does not add any information if compared with the apposition). When the verb is not merely a copula, the relative (or an abridged relative) will be needed: - The company, which was recently purchased by ACME, posted...Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

Does "from" attach to "is" or "ask"?

See here: You can ask whether our policy actually is a good deal from the hawks’ point of view. If it's ambiguous I could do this but this doesn't flow as well I don't think...maybe it's not bad at all though: You can ask whether our policy actually is—from the hawks’ point of view—a good deal.Read More...
A more natural place to which to move the phrase is right after "whether": You can ask whether, from the hawks' point of view, our policy actually is a good deal.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Is this an ambiguous syntax?

See the bold (could "against" be interpreted as attaching to "cover" or to something other than "moves")? That’s exactly it—since earlier last year the Russians have been saying that Ukraine could be turned into a heavily armed de facto US ally with the US giving de facto cover to Ukraine’s moves at home against the Russian language and also with the US arming Ukraine so that Ukraine can attack the Donbass’s separatist areas.Read More...
Hi, Andrew—Is it grammatically possible for the phrase "against the Russian language" to modify the noun phrase headed by "cover" rather than the noun phrase headed by "moves" in that sentence? Yes, it is grammatically possible.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

How can you indicate that you've transitioned away from paraphrase?

See the transition between paragraphs (1) and (2): (1) Regarding the current war in Ukraine, Chomsky says: the bleeders’ ongoing policy “entails that we reject out of hand the kind of diplomatic initiatives that in reality ended the Russian invasion of Afghanistan, despite U.S. efforts to impede them”; Washington’s ongoing policy means gambling that the Russian leadership won’t “resort to the means of violence they unquestionably possess to devastate Ukraine and set the stage for possible...Read More...
Hi, Andrew—In my opinion, the paragraphing and semicolons alone serve to indicate the transition from paraphrasing to commentary in each case.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

research & researches

I know that ( research) is generally used as an uncountable noun. However ,in some dictionaries, I find the plural ( researches ) which is rarely used nowadays. My question is : Is it structurally right to say: There are five researches available per person. Or It is common to say: There are five pieces of research available per person.Read More...
It is interesting that "researches" is correct as a plural noun in British English; I find that ungrammatical. I only use "researches," and only hear and read it used, as the third-person-singular-present form of the verb "research." When we (I guess I have to restrict myself to American speakers) want to refer to research in a countable way, we can, as you say, use "pieces of research." We can also refer to "research studies," "bodies of research," etc.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Some people of

Hi there, are all the following sentences grammatical? 1- At least some of the people of India will take note of who are in the concerns of the government and who are not. 2- At least some people of India will take note of who are in the concerns of the government and who are not.Read More...
Hi, Subhajit—They're OK, but I'd change "of India" to "in India" in each case.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Difference in nuance or meaning

The following is an excerpt from The New York Times of Feb.2. 2023. If the last sentence reads: American officials say the result has been hundreds of troops killed or injured a day, does it make any difference in the nuance or meaning? With Moscow desperate for a major battlefield victory and viewing Bakhmut as the key to seizing the entire eastern Donbas area, the Russian military has sent poorly trained recruits and former convicts to the front lines, straight into the path of Ukrainian...Read More...
Hello, Norifuji—The meaning would not change if "The result, American officials say, has been . . ." were changed to "American officials say the result has been . . ." The former is a grammatical transform of the latter. As an analogy, "7 + 3 = 10" means the same thing as "3 + 7 = 10."Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

"Short sentences are easy and quick to process."

I am once again hesitant about a rather simple construction: "Short sentences are easy and quick to process." Am I correct in thinking that the use of "quick" is actually ungrammatical in this context? Compare: (a) It is easy to process short sentences. / Readers can easily process short sentences. ( both correct ) (b) It is quick to process short sentences. ( incorrect ) / Readers can quickly process short sentences. ( correct )Read More...
Splendid! I wonder when the construction will be added to dictionaries. I imagine it needs to earn a bit more currency... (pun intended )Read More...
Last Reply By MlleSim · First Unread Post

Use of comma before a name that is not in direct address

Hi. If someone's name appears at the end of a sentence, but he or she is not the person we are speaking to , should a comma precede that name? Which of these two options would be the correct one? I think Mary wants to introduce you to her friend John. I think Mary wants to introduce you to her friend, John. Thanks for your help.Read More...
Hi, Hussein Hassan. Thank you for your excellent answer. The examples you have given i.e. sentences (3), (4), (5) & (6) have made your explanation very clear. And yes, I agree that (5) seems kind of odd and that (6) would be the better option. Thanks again.Read More...
Last Reply By gilbert · First Unread Post

’he/him/*his being much the best qualified of the candidates‘

Hello, everyone, “ We appointed Max, he/him/*his being much the best qualified of the candidates .” (from The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language p.1220) Can I parse the sentence above as follows?; 1. The original sentence with adverbial clause is; We appointed Max, because he was much the best qualified of the candidates . 2. Abbreviated form with a participle phrase is; We appointed Max, <he/him> being much the best qualified of the candidates . 3. Abbreviated form with...Read More...
Hi, Gustavo, now I've understood what you're trying to tell me upto now. Really appreciate your supports so far for several days. How can I thank you, Gustavo?Read More...
Last Reply By deepcosmos · First Unread Post

Fresh-cut or freshly-cut?

Hello! Which would be the correct word to use with fruits (to show that they were very recently peeled and sliced up), and flowers (to show that they were very recently picked from the farm/garden)? Should I say they are fresh-cut or freshly-cut ? Thank you for your help.Read More...
Hi, David. Sorry that I took forever to say thank you. Thanks for the analogy. It has put things in perspective, and I can see the difference in meaning now. Silly me! I thought there was an American-British difference in the use of fresh and freshly.Read More...
Last Reply By gilbert · First Unread Post

'After' vs 'later'

Hi there, which one is correct? 1- I found my lost book two days 'later'. 2- I found my lost book 'after' two days.Read More...
Hi, Subhajit 123, I see that 1 is the natural one to use especially if it is preceded by a specific action as that would mean that this period is mostly related to this action. Using 2 could have an implied meaning ( after two days of what ?). - I thought he had taken my book. Two days later, I found my lost book. (By chance). - I thought he had taken my book and dismissed him. After two days (of this incident / of my search / of not talking to him), I found my lost book.Read More...
Last Reply By ahmed_btm · First Unread Post

Comparative complements

In the phrase "A better result than we expected", can the noun, "we", be omitted? In '"A Student's introduction to English Grammar", it states that ""Than expected" is permitted within an attributive AdjP" and "A longer phrase (as in "a better result than we expected") would have to be located after the head noun where it functions as indirect complement". Can someone clarify why this is the case? Thanks!Read More...
Thanks for the clarification! There's a second edition of the textbook out now. Your explanation still stands.Read More...
Last Reply By Deng123 · First Unread Post

Short answers on negative questions.

Hello, Why do you think they have omitted the short answers in the following examples? A: - I'm not quite sure what happens at a clothes swapping party. - Oh, haven't you been to one before? I thought you had. - No , it's my first time. (No, I haven't) B: - Why are you giving away this dress? don't you want to keep it for a special occasion? - No , I'm bored with it these days. (No, I don't) C: - I like the colour of this shirt. Didn't you buy one like this last month? - No , mine was much...Read More...
Yes, indeed. Thank you Ahmed.Read More...
Last Reply By Meriem · First Unread Post

Negative questions - present perfect VS Past perfect

Hello GE community, I have a question about negative questions. I can't understand why in the following example we use haven't instead of hadn't. A: I'm not quite sure what happens at a clothes swapping party. B: Oh, haven't you been to one before? I thought you had. Source: It's a "filling the gap" exercise from the MACMILLAN Openmind advanced workbook.Read More...
Hello Ahmed, That was clear. Thank you.Read More...
Last Reply By Meriem · First Unread Post
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