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November 2020

Verb Tense Changes in Reported Speech

Hi. When searching the web, I found a course by Kelly Robart about Quoted and Reported Speech. The author stated this: 1- Quoted Speech Sue said, “ I study English .” 2-Reported Speech (formal or later reporting ) Sue said she studied English. 3- Reported Speech (conversational or immediate reporting ) Sue said she studies English. Is what he states true? Regards.Read More...

Which use of commas is correct?

The program may include additional services as coordinated with and approved by the program administrator. The program may include additional services as coordinated with, and approved by, the program administrator. Also, what is the correct name of the phrase "and approved by"? I called it an interjective conjunctive modifier, but I just made that up.Read More...
Hi, Confused (the emoticon you posted at the end does reflect your confusion ) Both versions, with and without the comma, are valid. The one with the commas introduces "and approved by," which is the second head of the compound participial clause starting with "as coordinated...," looks like additional to the other one, being similar to "as well as approved by."Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Contributor · First Unread Post

using an indefinite article before variety of

Hello, I recently came across the following sentence: The school has a variety of students . My question is : why do you use an indefinate article before an uncountable noun (variety) in this sentence. Is it possible that the word variety is a collective singular noun ? I always thought that the indefinate noun could not be used with uncountable nouns. thank you as always.Read More...
Hi, Mrchuffie, The noun "variety" is not uncountable. We do in fact speak about the different varieties of English. In the example provided, it does look like a collective noun, being syntactically similar to group or series.Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Contributor · First Unread Post

Which ones are correct?

1 What is the longest that has ever taken you to write a book? 1a What is the longest which has ever taken you to write a book? 2 What was the longest that has ever taken you to write a book? 3 What was the longest that ever took you to write a book?Read More...
Yes, adding "it" solves the problem. Using "which" or "that" is unnecessary.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Why is C wrong?

Why is C wrong? Intimacy, love, and marriage are three different, if interrelated, subjects . (A) different, if interrelated, subjects (B) interrelated subjects, being, however, different (C) different subjects, whereas they are interrelated (D) different subjects when interrelated (E) subjects that are different although being interrelatedRead More...
The question is not about grammar. It is about understanding the meaning of the various sentences in light of the example. Love, marriage, and intimacy are distinct but interrelated. Both (A) and (E) are correct answers, even if the test guide doesn't tell you so.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

the devil may take you

I first produced my pistol and I then produced my rapier Saying stand and deliver or the devil, he may take you Source: http://www.countysongs.ie/song/whiskey-in-the-jar 'Whiskey in the Jar' is a very famous Irish folk song that has been covered many times. What does' 'may' mean in that sentence? Does it indicate permission, or probability or...? Gratefully, NaviRead More...

Is it possible to say "they want you kneel" instead of "they want you to kneel?"

I've used 4 online spellcheckers, and only one of them marked it as an error. There are also lots of examples of "I want you kneel" phrase in the internet. I think "want" can act like a modal verb in this context. I need it for a song ;)Read More...
Limit the Google search to books and you won't find a single example. Most of the examples on Google are either grammatically irrelevant, because the words in the string belong to separate sentences, or from illiterate pornography.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

This or that

In the following context, should I use "this" or "that" e.g. From January 2020 to June 2020, the interest payable on account ending in X9999 was paid from this/that bank account. I am referring to the account ending in X9999 where the interest was charged to. Should I use this or that?Read More...
I mean, where in the text the account was first mentioned. Being deictic determiners or pronouns, "this" and "that" will be respectively used depending on how close or how far in the text the antecedent can be found. On rereading your original post, I realize you refer to the account you just mentioned , so you should use "this."Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Contributor · First Unread Post

in non-restrictive relative clauses can both relative pronoun and ‘be’ can be left out?

Hello, everyone! Today I have met following new question, for which I tried to find clear answer but failed; in non-restrictive relative clauses can both relative pronoun and ‘be’ in a passive clause can be left out? 1. I found out the above rule can be applied to the relative clause in which the antecedent of relative is acting as a subject for whole sentence as follows; using a past participle in a passive clause: * "The theft, discovered by the manager, was reported to the police", which...Read More...
Gustavo, really appreciate your kind explanations, especially since it was made on Sunday. Best RGDS,Read More...
Last Reply By deepcosmos · First Unread Post

Related to/relating to

I often see the sentences below and I am confused the proper usage for each one and which ones are grammatically wrong. The expense claimed were related to your income producing activity and therefore it was tax deductible. The expense claimed related to your income producing purpose and therefore it was tax deductible. The expense claimed were relating to your income producing purpose and therefore it was tax deductible. The expense claimed relating to your income producing purpose was tax...Read More...
Hi, Cristi, Please note that "expense" is a singular noun, so "were" should be changed to "was." The verb "relate" can be intransitive or transitive. If intransitive, you can use (2): 2. The expense claimed related to your income-producing purpose and therefore it was/was therefore tax deductible. (Are you sure you want to use "income producing purpose" —which I'd probably hyphenate— instead of the much more common "source of income"?) If transitive, you have to use the passive voice: 1a.Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Contributor · First Unread Post

To make someone irritating

Hi, I would like to ask whether the sentence "It makes me irritating." has the same meaning as "It makes me irritated." If it means that something irritates me a lot. I'm confused because of the -ing form in the first sentence.Read More...
Hello, Gabrielle, and welcome to the Grammar Exchange. Something irritating makes you irritated, or irritates you. -ing adjectives are active in meaning (something irritating causes irritation), while -ed adjectives are passive in meaning (somebody who is irritated experiences irritation).Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Contributor · First Unread Post

How could you do that!

A: I will ruin his life. B: How could you do that! He has done so much for you, after all. Can I use "could" in this sentence, where the action of ruining his life hasn't yet taken place? Is "can" possible? I know the following are possible: How could you say that! How can you say that!Read More...
They are possible in other contexts. I would not use it in the context you have provided. I would instead use the sentence that I would told you I would use.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

causative

Hello. What is the difference between the two sentences in the two pairs? 1.a) He is having a mechanic repair the car now. 1.b) He has a mechanic repairing the car now. 2.a) He was having a mechanic repair the car yesterday. 2.b)He had a mechanic repairing the car yesterday. Thank you.Read More...
Hello, Ahmed—Sentence (1a) means that, right now, he is hiring a mechanic to repair the car. Sentence (1b) means that a mechanic whom he has already hired to repair the car is repairing the car for him right now. Sentence (2a) means that he spend his day in the context of having hired a mechanic to repair the car. Sentence (2b) means that there was a period of time yesterday during which he had already hired a mechanic to repair the car and the mechanic was doing so.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

am not going to

Which are correct and is there any difference in the meanings of these sentences: 1) I have decided that I am not going to clean my son's room so that he will be obliged to do it himself. 2) I have decided that I am going not to clean my son's room so that he will be obliged to do it himself. 3) I have decided that I am going to not clean my son's room so that he will be obliged to do it himself. Gratefully, NaviRead More...
Hello, Navi—Among the phrasal modals (semi-modals, quasi-auxiliaries, whatever term you like), "BE going to" does not work with negation in the middle, between "going" and "to." "Have to" is another one that doesn't work like that: It's the weekend. * I have not to go to bed early tonight. But "used to" and "BE supposed to" do work: "People are supposed not to litter." "My son used not to clean his room." In your example set, (2) does not work, but (1) and (3) do. I find (1) much more...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

wear

Hello. Can I say "Wait a minute! I'm just wearing on my coat." Thank you.Read More...
Absolutely not, Ahmed. The sentence is both ungrammatical and ludicrous. You need to change "wearing" to "putting": "I'm just putting on my coat." " Put on (something)" is a phrasal verb. You can even say: "I'm just putting my coat on."Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Correct or now

Hi everyone!!! I need your help. I am trying to prepare a homework for my english classes and I have some doubts wheter I did the task correctly. Till now I thought I am good at grammar😉please take a look and let me know. Today is my deadline to send it back. Thank you in advance!!!! CORRECT or not When you have woken me I had a wonderful dream. This time yesterday I was playing tennis. When I got have got to the party everybody had a great time. When Columbus left Europe, he thought he...Read More...
Thank you, Ahmed. Olga, "Are all my answers to my grammar-homework questions correct?" is not a question about the grammar of English. If you ask a question about English grammar, we will be happy to discuss it with you.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

When I arrived home, she cooked the meal." means:

a)She cooked the meal before my arrival. b)She cooked the meal after my arrival. c)I arrived home and I saw her cooking. d)I arrived home but I didn't see her cook or cooking.Read More...
Hi, Toka, Please, notice that you shouldn't make your whole question the title of the thread. I see that 'b' is the best one here. It means that she was waiting for me and immediately on my arrival, she cooked the meal. Using the past simple with the two actions means that there was no time span between them.Read More...
Last Reply By ahmed_btm · First Unread Post

please help me what is the grammatical structure of this sentence

please help me what is the grammatical structure of this sentence "When a laser printer is used, the image is projected by means of a laser beam, which creates a brighter light and a greater contrast between lighter and darker areas and therefore results in sharper printed images. " 1.what type of this sentence what structure is it? 2.is it have passive voice? i really have no idea 3.is ''sharper printed images '' is past participle? 4.what job of ",Which" in third cluase do? 5.is the first...Read More...
I don't know if this answers your question, which is not very clear to me, but complex sentences contain one or more subordinate clauses, and relative clauses are one type of subordinate clauses. Therefore, a sentence containing a relative clause is, by definition, a complex sentence.Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Contributor · First Unread Post

Am I correct in thinking that this is a relative clause and not a phrase?

I was reading an online PDF on the differences between phrases and clauses, and I came across something peculiar. It sounds like it is describing a relative clause, but it is labeled as a "another kind of phrase". I'm just posting it on here to make sure I'm not misunderstanding something. Website =...Read More...
Sorry about that.Read More...
Last Reply By Jacob B. · First Unread Post

not letting me go

1) Are you not letting me go into the room? Is that sentence ambiguous? I think it could mean: a) Aren't you letting me go into the room? and also b) Are you preventing me from going into the room? Let us say someone stands in my way and blocks my passage to the room. I suspect that he is actively preventing me from going in. Let's assume I want to make sure there is no misunderstanding. I think I could use '1' but not 'a'. Gratefully, NaviRead More...

after Joyce

1) We shouldn't lose sight of the fact that these novelists were writing after Joyce. Is that sentence ambiguous? a) They were writing in a period of time that came after Joyce. They were post-Joyceian, so to speak. b) They were writing in the style of Joyce. Gratefully, NaviRead More...
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