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November 2020

I've seen/I saw that

What's the difference? 1) I've seen that you sent me some documents. 2) I saw that you have sent me some documents. 3) I saw that you had sent me some documents. 4) I've seen that you have sent me some documents.Read More...
1) I've seen that you sent me some documents. = I have just seen that you sent me documents in the past. 2) I saw that you have sent me some documents. (Technically wrong. But I think some people may say it.) I saw (at a certain point in the past) that you have sent me (more than once) documents. 3) I saw that you had sent me some documents. = 2 4) I've seen that you have sent me some documents. = I've just seen that you've just sent me documents (very recent actions) or I've seen several...Read More...
Last Reply By Me_IV · First Unread Post

Further and furthermore

In the context below, whether the above two used can be used interchangeably? e.g. We note that the beginning balance of the 2008 General ledger does not tie in with the closing balance of the 2007 General ledger. Further/furthermore, they were not recorded as a loan.Read More...
Tony, "further" and "furthermore" can be synonyms. In LDOCE , under "further" we can read: 5 IN ADDITION [ sentence adverb ] formal used to introduce something additional that you want to talk about SYN furthermore I'd use "opening balance" instead of "beginning balance." Also, I don't know what "they" refers to in the last sentence.Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

Usage of "the" in a gift note - please help

Hi, I want to write a note to a gift for parents of my wife (and grandparents of our daughter). As it is a special occasion, I want it to be correct, but I am confused how to use "the". The note says: "For (THE) parents and grandparents of (THE) wonderful girls". Should it be with "the" or without it?Read More...
I did as you advised. Thank you very much David!Read More...
Last Reply By Lukas · First Unread Post

On which/for which/ in which

Dear Sirs, I was just wondering the use of the following phrases: On which/for which/ in which For example in the sentence below, which one should I use? The details of the customers for which/on which/in which the late payment fee was imposed are as follows:Read More...
The relative clause (trust) f or which you were the auditor who audited this trust is definitely redundant. You should say: 1a. I thought I'd just email you regarding my queries in respect of the XYZ Trust for which you were the auditor. or 1b. I thought I'd just email you regarding my queries in respect of the XYZ Trust (that/which) you audited. Actually, although (1a) sounds fine to me, the main clause that the relative derives from could also be: You were the auditor of the XYZ Trust , in...Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

The use of "Which"

Hi, I was just wondering in the following example whether it is necessary to use which. e.g. In support of your contention that you acquired units in the ABC unit trust, you provided the following documents: a) Swiss bank history report which shows on 1 January 2020, you withdrew an amount of $100K to acquire the units in the said trust. b) c) Appreciate if you could shed some light!Read More...
Hello, Tony—It is not wrong to use the article from a grammatical standpoint. Indeed, it is quite natural and correct from a grammatical standpoint to use the article there. However, as Gustavo observes, articles are often omitted in such lists; so this is really a stylistic matter. You should examine already published reports of the type you are writing and see whether articles are used at the beginning of such lines. Alternatively, you could ask the people for whom you are writing (the...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

To make someone irritating

Hi, I would like to ask whether the sentence "It makes me irritating." has the same meaning as "It makes me irritated." If it means that something irritates me a lot. I'm confused because of the -ing form in the first sentence.Read More...
Thank you, David, as well. I agree, that the sentence feels unnatural, but I found it in a text and wanted to know, whether I understood it correctly or not. "It makes me an irritating person" is much clearer.Read More...
Last Reply By Gabrielle1324 · First Unread Post

"In" or "for" with "a long time"?

witch one is correct ? we haven't seen him in a long time. we haven't seen him for a long time. So I had this discussion with my professor about which one of them is correct, and he said "for" is the correct usage and "in" is wrong. but I'm 90% sure that they are both correct in this context. So I need a clear answer with detailed explanation about this question and please provide me with references so I can prove him wrong. Thanks.Read More...
Thank you very much, both of you. That was very helpful. @ahmed_btm @David, ModeratorRead More...
Last Reply By Rashad · First Unread Post

using an indefinite article before variety of

Hello, I recently came across the following sentence: The school has a variety of students . My question is : why do you use an indefinate article before an uncountable noun (variety) in this sentence. Is it possible that the word variety is a collective singular noun ? I always thought that the indefinate noun could not be used with uncountable nouns. thank you as always.Read More...
Thank you again for such a clear answer. This forum is so helpful and always respectful.Read More...
Last Reply By Mrchuffie · First Unread Post

Why is C wrong?

Why is C wrong? Intimacy, love, and marriage are three different, if interrelated, subjects . (A) different, if interrelated, subjects (B) interrelated subjects, being, however, different (C) different subjects, whereas they are interrelated (D) different subjects when interrelated (E) subjects that are different although being interrelatedRead More...
I am sorry. Do you really mean E or did you mean C was correct?Read More...
Last Reply By Me_IV · First Unread Post

An English grammar question concerning a clause beginning with 'although'

Firstly, thank you for taking the time to read the question. I have encountered a sentence beginning with 'although,' and a question arose. Although postal banking is effective in other countries and many post offices are located in regions where banks are critically needed, some critics of the proposal contend that post offices are ill-equipped to act as banks. Here, do I need to put a comma between "in other countries" and "and many post offices" in the dependent clause beginning with...Read More...
Dear David, Thank you so much for your kind reply. The question has been bugging me for hours. Hope you have a wonderful day!Read More...
Last Reply By Deku · First Unread Post

the devil may take you

I first produced my pistol and I then produced my rapier Saying stand and deliver or the devil, he may take you Source: http://www.countysongs.ie/song/whiskey-in-the-jar 'Whiskey in the Jar' is a very famous Irish folk song that has been covered many times. What does' 'may' mean in that sentence? Does it indicate permission, or probability or...? Gratefully, NaviRead More...
Hello, Navi—In that context, "the devil, he may take you" seems to me to be a hybrid of the set phrases "the devil may care" and "the devil take you" (subjunctive). The use of "or" in that sentence, the first part of which is an imperative, has a conditional meaning. I'd paraphrase it as follows: Either stand and deliver or go to hell.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Which use of commas is correct?

The program may include additional services as coordinated with and approved by the program administrator. The program may include additional services as coordinated with, and approved by, the program administrator. Also, what is the correct name of the phrase "and approved by"? I called it an interjective conjunctive modifier, but I just made that up.Read More...
Thank you for your responses!Read More...
Last Reply By confused · First Unread Post

Verb Tense Changes in Reported Speech

Hi. When searching the web, I found a course by Kelly Robart about Quoted and Reported Speech. The author stated this: 1- Quoted Speech Sue said, “ I study English .” 2-Reported Speech (formal or later reporting ) Sue said she studied English. 3- Reported Speech (conversational or immediate reporting ) Sue said she studies English. Is what he states true? Regards.Read More...
Hi, Izzathanna, and welcome to the G.E, Yes, he is quite right. Grammatically speaking, the verb tense does not need to change if the information being reported is still true.Read More...
Last Reply By ahmed_btm · First Unread Post

Which ones are correct?

1 What is the longest that has ever taken you to write a book? 1a What is the longest which has ever taken you to write a book? 2 What was the longest that has ever taken you to write a book? 3 What was the longest that ever took you to write a book?Read More...
Yes, adding "it" solves the problem. Using "which" or "that" is unnecessary.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Is it possible to say "they want you kneel" instead of "they want you to kneel?"

I've used 4 online spellcheckers, and only one of them marked it as an error. There are also lots of examples of "I want you kneel" phrase in the internet. I think "want" can act like a modal verb in this context. I need it for a song ;)Read More...
Limit the Google search to books and you won't find a single example. Most of the examples on Google are either grammatically irrelevant, because the words in the string belong to separate sentences, or from illiterate pornography.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

This or that

In the following context, should I use "this" or "that" e.g. From January 2020 to June 2020, the interest payable on account ending in X9999 was paid from this/that bank account. I am referring to the account ending in X9999 where the interest was charged to. Should I use this or that?Read More...
I mean, where in the text the account was first mentioned. Being deictic determiners or pronouns, "this" and "that" will be respectively used depending on how close or how far in the text the antecedent can be found. On rereading your original post, I realize you refer to the account you just mentioned , so you should use "this."Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

Correct statement

I. How many hours in a day? II. How many hours are in a day? Which of the above statements is correct?Read More...
Hello, JP, and welcome to the Grammar Exchange. Sentence (II) is the correct sentence. The question relates to the declarative sentence " [X] hours are in a day," in which you can see that the verb is needed.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

in non-restrictive relative clauses can both relative pronoun and ‘be’ can be left out?

Hello, everyone! Today I have met following new question, for which I tried to find clear answer but failed; in non-restrictive relative clauses can both relative pronoun and ‘be’ in a passive clause can be left out? 1. I found out the above rule can be applied to the relative clause in which the antecedent of relative is acting as a subject for whole sentence as follows; using a past participle in a passive clause: * "The theft, discovered by the manager, was reported to the police", which...Read More...
Gustavo, really appreciate your kind explanations, especially since it was made on Sunday. Best RGDS,Read More...
Last Reply By deepcosmos · First Unread Post

Related to/relating to

I often see the sentences below and I am confused the proper usage for each one and which ones are grammatically wrong. The expense claimed were related to your income producing activity and therefore it was tax deductible. The expense claimed related to your income producing purpose and therefore it was tax deductible. The expense claimed were relating to your income producing purpose and therefore it was tax deductible. The expense claimed relating to your income producing purpose was tax...Read More...
Hi, Cristi, Please note that "expense" is a singular noun, so "were" should be changed to "was." The verb "relate" can be intransitive or transitive. If intransitive, you can use (2): 2. The expense claimed related to your income-producing purpose and therefore it was/was therefore tax deductible. (Are you sure you want to use "income producing purpose" —which I'd probably hyphenate— instead of the much more common "source of income"?) If transitive, you have to use the passive voice: 1a.Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

How could you do that!

A: I will ruin his life. B: How could you do that! He has done so much for you, after all. Can I use "could" in this sentence, where the action of ruining his life hasn't yet taken place? Is "can" possible? I know the following are possible: How could you say that! How can you say that!Read More...
They are possible in other contexts. I would not use it in the context you have provided. I would instead use the sentence that I would told you I would use.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

causative

Hello. What is the difference between the two sentences in the two pairs? 1.a) He is having a mechanic repair the car now. 1.b) He has a mechanic repairing the car now. 2.a) He was having a mechanic repair the car yesterday. 2.b)He had a mechanic repairing the car yesterday. Thank you.Read More...
Hello, Ahmed—Sentence (1a) means that, right now, he is hiring a mechanic to repair the car. Sentence (1b) means that a mechanic whom he has already hired to repair the car is repairing the car for him right now. Sentence (2a) means that he spend his day in the context of having hired a mechanic to repair the car. Sentence (2b) means that there was a period of time yesterday during which he had already hired a mechanic to repair the car and the mechanic was doing so.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

am not going to

Which are correct and is there any difference in the meanings of these sentences: 1) I have decided that I am not going to clean my son's room so that he will be obliged to do it himself. 2) I have decided that I am going not to clean my son's room so that he will be obliged to do it himself. 3) I have decided that I am going to not clean my son's room so that he will be obliged to do it himself. Gratefully, NaviRead More...
Hello, Navi—Among the phrasal modals (semi-modals, quasi-auxiliaries, whatever term you like), "BE going to" does not work with negation in the middle, between "going" and "to." "Have to" is another one that doesn't work like that: It's the weekend. * I have not to go to bed early tonight. But "used to" and "BE supposed to" do work: "People are supposed not to litter." "My son used not to clean his room." In your example set, (2) does not work, but (1) and (3) do. I find (1) much more...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post
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