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December 2020

spent

1. She spent $200 on the map. 2. She spent $200 buying the map. 3. She spent $200 to buy the map. 4. She spent one hour on the homework. 5. She spent one hour doing the homework. 5. She spent one hour to do the homework. Are all the above sentences acceptable? Thank you.Read More...
Hi, IK—All but the last example (the second 5) are acceptable. It makes sense to say that one spent a certain amount of money in order to do something, but it does not make sense that one spent a certain amount of time to do something.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

enough lawyers' files

a . If you examine enough of our lawyers' files, you'll get a pretty good idea of how the legal system works. b. If you examine enough lawyers' files, you'll get a pretty good idea of how the legal system works. In the above sentences does 'enough' modify 'lawyers' or 'files'? 1. The files of a sufficient number of lawyers or 2. A sufficient number of files belonging to lawyers ? Many thanksRead More...
Hi, Azz—I think "enough" can modify either the possessor or the head noun in such phrases. Consider: (A) By then you should have examined enough (of our) lawyers' files to have a pretty good idea of whom we have on our staff. (B) By then you should have examined enough (of our) lawyers' files to make you feel ready to take a vacation. In (A), the natural interpretation is that "enough" relates to "lawyers." In (B), the natural interpretation is that it relates to "files."Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Essentially, in essence, basically, which in effect

Hi, Can someone shed some light on the differences of the use of the words above? Do they have the same meaning? Example: Any of my personal withdrawals are generally debited in/against General Ledger 2-1000 (Liability account), however my repayment amounts for this year seems to be greater than the total of my withdrawals. As a result, the closing balance of GL 2-1000 is in credit, this in effect/in essence/essentially/basically there was no net advance of funds owed by me to the company.Read More...
Cristi, I'm not going to correct your various mistakes but just focus on the phrase in question. Perhaps this is what you want to say: ...; this actually means (that) there was no net advance of funds ... or ..., which actually means (that) there was no net advance of funds ... Otherwise, I can't see how you want to link the pronoun "this" (in subject position) with the pronoun "there" (also in subject position).Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

is the word the amount of redundant?

Q1: is the word the amount of redundant in most of the circumstances? e.g. Having reviewed all the information and evidence provided, it is our view that you have not established the amount of $100K you received on 1 January 2020 was proceeds from your redemption of units in the relevant trust. Q1: In circumstances the word the "amount of" is not redundant?Read More...
Hi, Tony, The noun phrase "the amount of" is not generally redundant and tends to be convenient when it is the subject of the sentence, where one expects words, not numbers, to precede the verb.Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

Singular vs Plural

Which one is correct? Mr Jones and Mrs Jones' car or Mr Jones and Mrs Jones's carRead More...
I agree with Ahmed that Mr. and Mrs. Jones's car is the best way of phrasing it. The reason it is more common to use 's for possessives after names ending in -s is that, when the sentence is spoken, the hearer must hear the possessive as occurring after the -s , lest he mistake that -s for the possessive. Thus, if someone wanted to refer formally to a post of mine as Mr. Evans' post, and the listener did not have the benefit of seeing the phrase written, he could easily suppose that the...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

The use of "being" or "of"

1. In the example below, should I use "being" or "of"? e.g. the date of unit redemption appears in your bank statement is 1 January 2020 which differs from the date shown in the trust's unit register being/of 31 January 2020. 2. Can I change everything to past (see below), does it sound right? What's your preference? e.g. the date of unit redemption appeared in your bank statement was 1 January 2020 which differed from the date shown in the trust's unit register being/of 31 January 2020.Read More...
It's an improvement, Tony, but it still needs a little work. The relative clause after "redemption" is restrictive, not nonrestrictive, so it should not be set off by a comma. You can use "which" or "that" or, alternatively, make it a reduced relative clause by beginning it with "appearing." You can keep the "which" clause after "1 January 2020," which was a nonrestrictive relative clause. (1a) The date of unit redemption that appears on your bank statement is 1 January 2020, which differs...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

It's in our nature

Is it correct to say "It's in our nature that we like to take photos to remember special events and people"? I meant to say that we naturally like to take photos.Read More...
Hi, Ashraful—Unfortunately, your sentence is quite awkward, if not ungrammatical. When we use extraposed subject clauses with "it's in our nature," the extraposed clause is normally an infinitival clause: It's in our nature to take photos by which to remember special events and people. In that revision, I omitted the part about "liking," which is understood. I also used a relative clause beginning with "by which" after "photos" rather than an infinitival clause of purpose, which you had used...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Modal Verb Question for 10 year olds

Just wondering what thoughts are about this question for a 10 year old? This was posted by a concerned parent on another forum.Read More...
Hi, CWattie, and welcome to the Grammar Exchange. Asking a child to classify all modals according to their degree of certainty far exceeds their capability. In Azar and Hagen's Understanding and Using English Grammar , known as the Blue Book and intended for intermediate to advanced students (thus being the most advanced in their three-book series), we can find on pages 192, 194 and 196 some interesting charts ( 10-4 Degrees of Certainty: Present Time, 10-5 Degrees of Certainty: Present Time...Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

"A number of" or "A number of the" ?

Which one is correct : A number of the students in my class are from Mexico. A number of students in my class are from Mexico. I think the second one is correct but I'm not sure. Please provide a reference if you can.Read More...
Hi, Rashad, Both are correct, as are: - Some of the students in my class... - Some students in my class...Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

Present perfect tense followed by past tense

Can present perfect tense be followed by past tense? Assuming I am the judge and I have made a decision to allow the expenses you incurred. So can I say, I have allowed the deductible interest expenses you incurred in the 2020 income year as I can establish the nexus how they were related to income producing activities? so basically Present perfect tense followed by past tenseRead More...
Yes, you can use the auxiliary just once. "allowed" and "buried" are past participles forming part of the verb in the present perfect tense.Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

Grammar help

Hello! I am needing some help determining the structure for a couple of sentences. For example verb phrases, pp, np, direct object, indirect object. The sentences are “Lauren was staring at him laughing” ”everyone came to the table to eat dinner” “for dinner they had meat since they had no pasta” “it was delicious” thank you!! Could you also help tell me if these are simple, compound or complex?Read More...
Hello, Hbrown, and welcome to the Grammar Exchange. Is this for a homework assignment? The Grammar Exchange is not a homework-completion service. If you have a particular grammatical question you would like to explore about one or more of these examples, we will be happy to discuss it with you. Please title your thread accordingly. Thank you.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Have a hard time

Hello friends, I’m thinking of alternative expressions to describe having difficulty. When it comes to “I have a hard time doing sth”, I wonder if it means exactly the same as “I have difficulty / problems / trouble doing sth”. In particular, is “have a hard time” applicable only to a temporary situation? So can I say “My 95-year-old granny has a hard time seeing.”? In which case I’m sure “She has difficulty seeing” is correct, considering her eye problem a permanent state. That is my...Read More...
Thank you for resolving my doubt and for the clarification. In my city Hong Kong many students like to abuse inversion patterns regardless of the context. It's our "favourite advanced pattern" for some wrong reason. Thank you for the generous helpRead More...
Last Reply By Kinto · First Unread Post

Transitive and Intransitive verb

Hello, I am confused whether the verbs "state" and "total" can be used as both Transitive and Intransitive verb or they are always intransitive verb. For example: 1. In your letter to City Bank dated 5 December 2020, it stated that the funds available to be disbursed from your bank account ending in X9999 totalled $1 million. or 2. In your letter to City Bank dated 5 December 2020, it was stated that the funds available to be disbursed from your bank account ending in X9999 w ere totalled $1...Read More...
Not only weird — it's terrible! The verb "encompass" does not work well in that example, let alone in the passive form (which was not properly constructed — you should have said "encompassed by " or "encompassed within ").Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

In addition vs Additionally

Are the word "in addition" and "Additionally" share the same meaning and can be used interchangeably? e.g. You told me that you had a big house in LA Additionally/In addition, you also owned a big cruise which was worth around $10 Million.Read More...
Hi, Cristi, ( Do the words "in addition" and "additonally" share... and can they be used...?) Yes, they share the same meaning and are usually interchangeable, mostly in front and end position (if they ever occur in end position, since the front position is by far the most usual). In mid position, "additionally" is preferred. It would make more sense for "additionally" or "in addition" to work and not be redundant with "also" to make it modify the verb "told" rather than "owned": - You told...Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

Use of "since"

Eleanor Roosevelt set the standard against which the wives of all United States Presidents since have been evaluated. Does this sentence meam the same as: Eleanor Roosevelt set the standard against which the wives of all United States Presidents have since been evaluated("since" being an adverbial). Or "Since" just modifies "wives of all United States presidents". Thanks in advance.Read More...
Hello, Robby zhu and Gustavo—I agree with your answer, Gustavo. In each interpretation, "since" may be analyzed as an intransitive preposition (a preposition that does not have an overt or expressed complement). The idea here is that the intransitive prepositional-phrase (PP) adjunct modifies the subject noun phrase of the relative clause ("the wives of all United States Presidents") rather than the verb phrase of that clause ("have been evaluated"). If we give "since" a complement, it can...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Introduce yourself in facetime calls

On regular phone calls we use ’this’ in order to refer to ourself: Hello, this is Ben. Does the same rule apply for video calls (such as face time)?Read More...
Hello, BenMont, and welcome to the Grammar Exchange. Interesting question. While there are no grammatical rules governing this, there are practices which can be observed, and I think that the general practice in face-time video calls is parallel to the general practice in in-person interactions. When we can see the person to whom we are introducing ourselves, we use "I" rather than "this": "Hello. I'm David." We use "this," however, when introducing someone to another person in the room.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Grammar

Thanks a lot for your your effort and time.I think you are happy to help people . IS my choice in this sentence right ? 1-Some students do their homework online , but copying it from the internet is not acceptable . a-or b-for c-because d-butRead More...
Ok.Thanks a lot .Read More...
Last Reply By rasaa960 · First Unread Post

Where you think he lives. / How old you think she is.

Hi I want to know the following process is possible. A-1. Do you think ~ + Where does he live? A-2. => Where do you think he lives? A-3. => where you think he lives. [Indirect question order.] A-4. => This is where you think he lives. Is it right? B-1. Do you think ~ + How old is she? B-2 => How old do you think she is? C-3 => how old you think she is [Indirect questions order.] C-4 => This is how old you think she is. Is it right?Read More...
No, "embedded" means that the clause is inside a longer sentence.Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

“more” usage in the sentences from Longman dictionary

I looked up "more" However, Which meaning [from (1) ~ (3)] does the under sentences have? I want to figure out it. The sentences are from Longman dictionary. 1. used to say that something happens a greater number of times or for longer 2. used to say that something happens to a greater degree 3. and so on... • Our future competitiveness and prosperity depend more than ever before on technology and industry. --> (1)? (2)? or (3)? • Visitors to the centre complained about the service more...Read More...
Hi, TaeBbongE I made a typo in my previous posting, which I've already corrected. The correct option is meaning "2": - Our future competitiveness and prosperity depend more than ever before on technology and industry. (meaning 2 )Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

What meaning does the word “in her turn “indicate?

‎‎I can’t understand the meaning of the words “in her turn “in this paragraph. What meaning does it indicate? Please explain itRead More...
To Gustavo, Contributor Thank you for showing me another expression. Thanks to you, I was able to enlarge my understanding of it further. Thank you for sparing your time for me.Read More...
Last Reply By YoA 24 · First Unread Post

Perpetuate

ahmad
Hello, everyone, The following is listed as an example under the word “perpetuate”, in one of the e-resources I have access to. “[the revived Romano-Germanic Empire] perpetuated the name, the language, the literature, such as it then was, of Rome.” I was wondering if the word order of the phrase “then was” in the above example could be reversed without compromising the meaning of the sentence or its grammatical acceptability. Thanks.Read More...
Yes, Ahmad, "such as it then was" is interchangeable with "such as it was then."Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post
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