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Regarding the COVID-19 Pandemic

David, Moderator
Dear Grammar Exchange members, As we continue our grammar discussions, I want you to know that I am aware that we are all struggling in various ways as a result of the current pandemic and that my heart goes out to all of you. I hope that you and your loved ones are safe and healthy. Although we may not know each other personally, we all know that there is much more to us than the English grammar issues we discuss here. This post is devoted to the dimensions of you and your lives that I know...Read More...
Terry, Thank you for thinking of me in these bleak times. I have been having to deal with some personal issues and look forward to resuming my usual presence on the forum as soon as possible. I join you and the rest in wishing the best for all of our community and their families. Deus uobiscum, DocV Santa Cruz, California, USRead More...
Last Reply By Doc V · First Unread Post

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Perfect tense for completion and duration

Hi, guys. Can we express both completion and duration with perfect tense? For example, "I have run for 30 minutes." Is this construction correct?Read More...
Hi Lucas, this is a nice poster I haven’t seen before and I find it useful for my own teaching work as it looks neatly logical and exhaustive. Thank you very much. It’s interesting that in this very poster there are the two sections “Life experience” and “Unfinished time word”, which may have helped dispel some doubt. Under “Life experience”, “I’ve run for 30 minutes.”, as David pointed out, can be an answer to questions like “Have you ever run for 30 minutes?” It is comparable to the...Read More...
Last Reply By Kinto · First Unread Post

What they (the police) appear to be

Could anyone please tell me the sentence below is correct or not? If it's correct, then how can I write it easier way: ▪ What they (the police) appear to be powerless to do is to make people accept that they (the police) are above the law.Read More...
Hi, Toaha, If you begin with the second part, you will understand it better. "Making people accept that they are above the law is what they appear to be powerless to do."Read More...
Last Reply By ahmed_btm · First Unread Post

future perfect

President Trump said in his address yesterday, “George Floyd will not have died in vain” as you see in the following excerpt. “Trump vows ‘ George Floyd will not have died in vain ’ as National Guard arrives in Minneapolis. The president urged residents of Minneapolis to honor Floyd's memory, assuring them that his death will not be in vain.” (disrn.com) Is the future perfect grammatically correct in this context when George Floyd is already dead?Read More...
Hi, Fujibei, I agree with Kinto that using the future perfect here is grammatically correct. It simply means that Trump is going to do something concerning this issue at some point in the future. After this point, this man's death or the reasons behind his death will no longer be in vain.Read More...
Last Reply By ahmed_btm · First Unread Post

such that

Hi Sentence: 1. By COREFERENCE we understand a relation between the two noun phrases such that they have the same reference. (CGEL) Can I rephrase it as, 2. By COREFERENCE we understand such a relation between the two noun phrases that they have the same reference. Does "that" introduce a relative clause?Read More...

meaning of "top" and "exceed"

The following is from The Asahi Shimbun, an English paper in Japan, of May 30. "As the nation remains on alert for a surge in novel coronavirus cases, Tokyo recorded 14 new infections on May 30, the fifth consecutive day the number has topped double digits in the capital. In the southern city of Kita-Kyushu, 16 new confirmed cases were reported, the third straight day exceeding double digits." The number of novel coronavirus cases both in Tokyo and Kita-Kyushu was in double digits and the...Read More...

Starting a sentence with "An"

I've been asked to proof-read some wording for a website and public documents and something about the wording isn't sitting right with me. I could be wrong, but it reads funny starting with " an evidence-based..." I'd like to be able to support my commentary, but I don't know for sure what, if anything, is wrong grammatically. Any guidance would be greatly appreciated! Variation 1: An evidence-based program that has been adopted by over 20 countries, Mental Health First Aid teaches adults...Read More...
The sentence above, where the phrase in question is in apposition to the head of the subject, also sounds fine. Some might argue that, being somewhat long, it separates "Mental Health First Aid" from the verb a bit too much, but I find it nice too. It is, as you said, a matter of preference.Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Contributor · First Unread Post

Article

I know we use the article "an" before a vowel, but this rule wasn't applied to the first sentence. Could anyone please explain why the article "an" wasn't used before the word "individual" in the first sentence and why it was used in the second sentence? 1. As a teacher he tries to give individual attention to his pupils. (Bangla Academy dictionary) 2. In the United States, the National Guard is a military force within an individual state, which can become part of the national army if there...Read More...
Thanks ahmed_btm 💖Read More...
Last Reply By Toaha · First Unread Post

Present Perfect Simple vs Continuous

I do understand that both tenses, the Present Perfect Simple and Continuous, are used for repeated actions. I started researching the topic a long time ago and found out a lot of differences between the two. The difference that I need to ask you about is the following: This is from Practical English Usage by Michael Swan. I've understood from it that we don't use the Present Perfect Continuous when we say how often we have done something. However, I came across the following sentence,...Read More...
Thanks David. Your examples have clarified everything and answered all my questions I had in my mind. I really appreciate that.Read More...
Last Reply By Rasha Assem · First Unread Post

Use of word "Spirit"

Considering current lockdown situation which prevents you from clubbing is the following sentence correct? "I want to dance. Even my spirit is dancing within". Is the usage of the word "Spirit" correct?Read More...
Hi, Angelica—The "sentence" you have asked about is actually two sentences. There is a period at the end of the first sentence. The second sentence begins with "Even." Those two sentences are OK, though the use of "Even" is a bit awkward. I recommend deleting "Even": I want to dance. My spirit is dancing within. The problematic sentence is the one you used to ask your question: " Considering current lockdown situation which prevents you from clubbing is the following sentence correct? " You...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

George Floyd

George Floyd cried out for his mother twice while being murdered. His mother died 2 years ago. Let that sink in. I have 2 questions regarding that passage above: 1. What is the meaning of "Let that sink in"? 2. Can I write this sentence: "George Floyd cried out for his mother twice while being murdered" like this way: George Floyd cried out for his mother twice while he was murdered.?Read More...
Wow! thanks for this informative explanation, Gustavo 💖😇Read More...
Last Reply By Toaha · First Unread Post

"Fauna and flora" phrase

Hi guys! Could you please help me with my confusion. The phrase "fauna and flora" is an uncountable noun or countable noun, which can be added s into "faunas and floras". Which one is it? Thank you for helping!Read More...
Hi, Moon Le, "fauna" and "flora" are uncountable in the sense that you cannot say *two faunas, *three floras , but can take an "s" to refer to the fauna and flora of different places or times.Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Contributor · First Unread Post

She always lets me down . OR She always is letting me down

Please help. What is correct way ?Read More...
Hello, Nastassia, and welcome to the Grammar Exchange. When you ask questions here concerning example sentences, please include the example sentences in the body of your post, so that readers do not have to refer to the title in order to understand your question. Thank you. Both sentences are correct, though you have "always" in an awkward place in "She always is letting me down." You should place "always" after "is" (the auxiliary verb): "She is always letting me down." There is a...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

accustomed to swearing

1) He is accustomed to swearing. Is that sentence ambiguous? a) He is in the habit of swearing. b) He is used to hearing people swear. How about: 2) He is accustomed to swearing at linguists. I think sense "a" is the one that more readily comes to mind, but he might be in a select company that swear furiously at linguists constantly and he is merrily accustomed to such swearing. Gratefully, NaviRead More...
Hello, Navi—Yes, (1) is ambiguous in that way. Nice observation. On reading (b), "swearing" is a gerund, i.e., a noun. (Compare: "He has grown accustomed to the swearing in that film, he has seen it so many times.") The sentence says that swearing is something to which he is accustomed. On reading (a), "swearing" is a verb. (Compare: "He is accustomed to swear .") "Swearing" is not a true gerund on this interpretation. It could even be modified by an adverb ("He is accustomed to swearing...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Deleted

DeletedRead More...
Yes. Unlike "wanted," which can point to the future within the past ( he wanted to have a meeting/meetings ), "liked" expresses a habitual past, and then "so he could not bear to listen" could only be used to express result. This is another possible sentence: - Jim didn't like long meetings so (as a result) he left in the middle of the boring presentation. Note 1: couldn't bear can also be followed by V-ing ( couldn't bear listening to... ) Note 2: Your comment further above should have been...Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Contributor · First Unread Post

have built, have been building

Hello. Which one is correct? Why? - They.........this school for two years now. a) have built b) have been building Thank you.Read More...
Hi, Ahmed—Only (b) is correct. "For two years now" tells you that the action of building this school is ongoing. The progressive is needed to show that the action has not been completed.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post
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