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July 2021

Have been having

This is the 11 th Pride march, we have been organising it right from 2008- 2009. And we have been having regular pride marches every year. And we have been having regular pride marches every year. In the above sentence, why did use " HAVING" instead of using "..... And we have been regular pride marches every year and what is the meaning HAVING here? Source :https://www.mid-day.com/mumbai-guide/famous-personalities/article/exclusive-harish-iyer-i-am-gay-and-fabulous-20295168Read More...
Thank you, Gustavo. Thanks a ton😃Read More...
Last Reply By Former Member · First Unread Post

rules on creating hyphenated adjectives?

hi! wasn't sure where i could ask about this, but i've always been interested in "made up" hyphenated adjectives and have been planning to use a few for something i'm working on for fun! for example: I love Pride & Prejudice Mr Darcy's iconic line, "I have fought against my better judgment, my family's expectations, the inferiority of your birth by rank and circumstance." If I want to call something (even something silly like a curry dish my mom made, for example) that I love so much...Read More...
Hello, Joeymango, and welcome to the Grammar Exchange. This word-formation mechanism is known as "compounding" (i.e. the formation of compounds). In Appendix I to their "University Grammar of English," Quirk and Greenbaum refer to the following cases where a word can be followed by V-ing to form a compound word: I.35 Verb and object compounds air-conditioning, brainwashing, dressmaking, story-telling I.36 Verb and adverbial compounds daydreaming, sun-bathing, sleepwalking, handwriting Your...Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

Has had

"That’s why we decided to tell the story light-heartedly,” says Jude, who has just had the time to finally charge his phone which has been ringing nonstop, with colleagues and well-wishers calling him to say he did a good job with Sara’s . My question is that why did use "has had" in this sentence and what does it mean when we use it together? Source : https://www.thenewsminute.com/...ude-interview-152064Read More...
Thanks!Read More...
Last Reply By Former Member · First Unread Post

Question about semicolon usage

Brian Honeycutt
Hello all, was wondering about the following: Is the use of a semicolon correct in this sentence: The walls around my heart were dying; the twitching carriers of unbearable suffering, destroyed. Thanks!Read More...
Thanks for the feedback David. I hadn't heard of parallelism until my posts were answered here. I do see what you mean now though.Read More...
Last Reply By Brian Honeycutt · First Unread Post

Help with commas

Brian Honeycutt
Hello all, first time posting here. I am editing a short story of mine, and am down to some sentences where I am unsure as to comma usage. 1. Eventually, the repertoire of my efforts slowly dimini shed as the limits of my imagination and nurturing abilities were sorely tested. Do I want/need a comma before 'as' here? I am thinking the comma would make the sentence mean 'my efforts slowly diminished, because the limits...' whereas I want it to mean simultaneously. 2. After what seemed a...Read More...
Hi David, Oops! Sorry about that! I will be sure to follow the guidelines next time. I appreciate you taking the time to answer my questions anyways. for 2. I did think about using the dashes, though I went back to the commas as I thought it conveyed a bit more of a relaxed manner of speech, which I liked. I was writing this late at night listening to a lot of ambient music so a fair amount of that subtler tone is in the writing. For 4. I think I will go with your second bullet as that is...Read More...
Last Reply By Brian Honeycutt · First Unread Post

Need help for grammar- relative clause with preposition

Can anyone help explain how the complicated sentence below from the Economist was evolved from a simple sentence? Every successful asset manager finds there is a fund size beyond which the magic stops working or begins to do damage.Read More...
It is a quit impressive explaination. Thank you so much!!Read More...
Last Reply By Sarah Zhou · First Unread Post

his place

a. Your son shouldn't be working at his age. He belongs in school to receive an education. b. Your son shouldn't be working at his age. His place is in school to receive an education. c. Your son shouldn't be working at his age. He belongs in school to be educated. d. Your son shouldn't be working at his age. His place is in school to be educated. Are the above sentences grammatically correct and meaningful? Many thanks.Read More...
Hi, Azz—I dislike all four of your examples and think that they would be much improved if you deleted the (redundant) sentence-ending infinitival in each. Alternatively, the second sentence of each example could be changed to this: "His should be in school(,) getting an education."Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Comparative structure - "that of"

Greetings admin! Please help me with this question. I'd like to write these two sentences in my essay but i wonder which is grammatically correct. - UK people spent about 450,000 pounds on computers, which was 50,000 pounds higher than that of French people. - UK people spent about 450,000 pounds on computers, which was 50,000 pounds higher than French people did. Thank you very much. Best regardsRead More...
No, Moon Le, that doesn't work well. "Did" doesn't just stand for "spent"; it includes the idea "about 450,000 pounds on computers." It is senseless and ludicrous to say that 450,000 pounds was 50,000 pounds more than people in France spent 450,000 pounds on computers. Deleting "did" wouldn't solve anything. Rather, it would create the problem of indicating that 450,000 pounds was 50,000 more than the population of France. "Than the U.S." should be to "than in the US" or "than there were in...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Need help for Grammar and Meaning.

I don't understand the bold sentence below from The Economics. Does anyone can help analyze the sentence structure and simply explain the meaning of this sentence? ”Rivals carp that Ms Wood is selling not skewness but momentum. She certainly puts a lot more emphasis on “the story” than on valuation. There seems to be no stock price that a would-be disrupter could not grow into in time. Any sell-off in tech, such as this week’s swoon, is not a warning but an invitation to buy the dip. ” Is...Read More...
Yes, Sarah, that's right. Again, be careful with "do"-support. Your mistake with it this time is that you didn't use the base form of the verb ("realize") after "did."Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

English

What's the Meaning of "More of"Read More...
Hello, Dillon Teano, and welcome to the Grammar Exchange. Please read our Guidelines . According to Guideline 6, you should at least provide an example sentence where the word or phrase in question is used. Also, "English" is not a good title to start any thread here. You could have used "more of" as a title.Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

how to use word "otherwise"

Therefore, when individuals are in the face of state interest, they would consider compromising on the government’s offer if it is reasonable, otherwise, they would vigorously defend their benefits against the government. The government would put itself in people’s shoes to come up with a satisfying solution eventually. I check otherwise My teacher said the first sentence is a run-on sentence. But refering to the example from Cambridge below, "otherwise" can be used as a conjunction to...Read More...
Thank you so much for your help.Read More...
Last Reply By Sarah Zhou · First Unread Post

No article

Child as he may be, he was brave Could you tell me why 'child' without an article is being used instead of ' a child' ? Have no idea at all. Is there any reason not to use 'a' here?Read More...
Thank you for the help. Actually, I am trying to figure out where this sentence comes from. What is the original form of ' Rich as he may be' ?Read More...
Last Reply By GBLSU · First Unread Post

Proper vs common nouns

Hello, Some students I volunteer with often get confused about the difference between proper and common nouns. Of course, I go through the usual explanation of one being specific vs generic. A student asked me why autumn, summer etc are not capitalized as they are the proper names of a season. (like Monday, Tuesday etc are the proper names of days). Is there a logical or historical reason why we don't capitalize seasons? (couldn't find any answers online) Thank you as always.Read More...
As I once told you, David, you must be the only moderator in GE's history who can be willing to take the trouble to go to a library to dispel a member's doubt, even if you couldn't this time due to force majeure reasons. That's a great test. When I first saw this question, first thing that came to mind was the possibility to use indefinite articles with either seasons or days of the week: a windy Tuesday, an unusually hot summer I think we can only use the definite article with the days of...Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

what does "as" mean in this sentence?

A third is that age and poor health, even when these do not amount to disability, restrict what is possible, as do the caring responsibilities routinely and disproportionately shouldered by women. what does "as" mean in this sentence?Read More...
AnstonRoy, David's explanation is indeed superb. Nobody could have done it better. It's a grammatical pleasure to see how each sentence leads to the following.Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

You could roast a chicken as you choose/chose.

Consider this, please: CIRCUS Manager: "All you have to do is look the lion in the eye and show him you're not afraid." Assistant: "Yes, but the lion would know I was just being deceitful." Here "would" and "was" seem to have the same hypothetical tense . I was wondering whether the same thing would be true for sentence (2) below. 1) You could roast a chicken whole or in pieces as you choose . 2) You could roast a chicken whole or in pieces as you chose . Is sentence (2) correct and can it...Read More...
Yes, Language Learner, those sentences are fine, provided there is conditional meaning in play (even without an overt "if"-clause). If, however, the "could" sentences are supposed to be softened versions of "You can/may do so however you like," then you cannot use the past tense in the "however" clause.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Present prefect and past perfect in one sentence

Dear GE members, I wonder is there a possibility to use prefect and past perfect in one sentence. Usually past perfect is used when one's trying to convey some sequence of events and is often preceded by a simple past verb. E.g. I went there before she had arrived. But, can we say something like this which uses past perfect is preceded by present perfect. Emma has released the songs which she had put much hard work and soul into over the years. Edit note: Changed she put to she had putRead More...
Yes, AnstonRoy, that sentence is grammatically correct. The use of the present-perfect progressive in the relative clause suggests that it is possible that the songs will continue to evolve even though Emma has now released them.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

What are the subject and predicate of the main clause?

“The trend risks stretching to breaking point social services in some of the country’s poorest local authorities , which are faced with falling budgets and a bigger care bill.” I think “which are faced with falling budgets and a bigger care bill. ” is a object clause for describing "local authorities" But I don't understand the main clause, please help analyze the sentence structure.Read More...
Hi, Sarah—Please remember that you need to represent quotations as quotations by using quotation marks, and give the source of the quotation ( here ). The author should have used "a" or "the" before "breaking point." The "which"-clause is a nonrestrictive relative clause modifying (or commenting on) the noun phrase "some of the country's local authorities." The main clause condences to "The trend risks [doing something]" where "doing something" is "stretching to a breaking point social...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

When to use which, when connecting sentences

Dear GE, I have a question when to use "which" when connecting two sentences. The first sentence below is written in the past tense and the second sentence is written in present/future tense. I want to know are both still meaningful without "which was/is" (for me, the second sentence sounds more natural without "which is" than the first one without "which was". I'm not sure is it because of the tense difference). I would like to know is there a particular name for this sentence structure...Read More...
Hi Gustavo, This is a great explanation! I have been waiting for this clarification and thank you so much!Read More...
Last Reply By AnstonRoy · First Unread Post

Future Conditional

Dear All, Are there only four types of conditional tenses ? Could you help me what is the tense I should use when describing a future event which could occur only if another (future) event takes place. Can you give me some example sentences ? For example how can I write a sentence saying Robert can only deliver his speech only if the next year's event going to held (as planned). Or, How can you tell someone you will qualify for a (future event) job only if you don't have any health issues...Read More...
Hi David, Your reply is so useful. Thank you so much! Yes, agree it should be " going to be held". There, I went through a confusion. Sorry about that and for the other mistakes.Read More...
Last Reply By AnstonRoy · First Unread Post

<as?> practiced

Having rejected the Aristotelian theory of form and essence, natural theology as practiced by Aquinas was not possible. https://iep.utm.edu/theo-nat/ Hello! Do you think the sentence also works if I drop "as"? Is there a change in meaning? Thank you.Read More...
The link you provided does not seem to work. This is the complete text: - The results of the election shall be proclaimed by the Mayor, and the Proclamation shall be published one time in a newspaper having a general circulation in the City, which Proclamation shall advise that the results as proclaimed shall be conclusive unless attacked in the courts within thirty days after the date of publication. "As proclaimed" has some manner-related connotation there, being similar to "thus...Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

"The over-65s" phrase

Greetings Admin! I have a question. I've recently read a phrase used in an essay - "The experts have predicted that the proportion of the over-65s will have doubled by the year 2030." I am really confused that the phrase "the over-65s" refers to all people aged 65 and above or those aged 66 and above (which excludes those who are the age of 65). Thank you for taking time to read my question.Read More...
Yes I am. Thank you sir.Read More...
Last Reply By Moon Le · First Unread Post

before+perfect tenses

Hello Moderators. Could you help me? What is the difference in meaning between the two sentences in each pair of the following sentences? 1a- Before he has arrived, we will leave. 1b- Before he arrives, we will leave. 2a- Before he had arrived, we left. 2b- Before he arrived, we left. 3a- Before she has cooked, we will arrive home. 3b- Before she cooks, we will arrive home. Thank you so much.Read More...
With simple tenses in the "before"-clause, there is the implication that the event described in that clause happened or will happen, as may be demonstrated by the unnaturalness of supposing otherwise: (4a) ?* Before he arrived, we left. Later on, we found out that he didn't arrive at all. With perfect tenses in the "before"-clause, however, there is not that implication. The sentence is compatible with a state of affairs in which the situation described in the "before" clause never came to...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

and or and this?

I am a bit confused about the following sentence: These proteins were used to enrich and identify specific binders and resulted in the identification of a large number of interactors. Or would it be better with These proteins were used to enrich and identify specific binders, and this resulted in the identification of a large number of interactors. or is , and this = and? or These proteins were used to enrich and identify specific binders. This resulted in the identification of a large...Read More...
Hello, SilverLining, and welcome to the Grammar Exchange. This is wrong, because the subject of "resulted" would be "these proteins," which is not correct. This would be better. The idea would be that, while using the proteins to enrich and identify specific binders, it was possible to identify a large number of interactors. Actually, I think the wording I just proposed would be more accurate: - While using these proteins to enrich and identify specific binders, it was possible to identify a...Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

with their hands “frozen/freezing"

Hello, everyone, They climbed up the mountain with their hands ____ . a) frozen, b) freezing While the answer is a) on my book, I think both could be the answer for the absolute construction, because the verb ‘freeze’ can act transitively and intransitively depending on the context. Will appreciate if you advise which is the correct one.Read More...
Hi David, Thanks so much!Read More...
Last Reply By AnstonRoy · First Unread Post
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