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September 2020

Legal reasoning

Hi, Often in a legal reasoning when outlining the reasons for the decision reached. it states we note in this context: a. b. c. What does it mean we note in this context?Read More...
Hi, Tony C, Just as you said, that would be a way of introducing the legal or factual grounds that account for a certain decision. "We note in this context" would be similar to saying "We point out in this regard that ..."Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

- Greenpeace is an international (association - organization) that protects the environment.

Hello. Which one is correct. - Greenpeace is an international (association - organization) that protects the environment. Thank you.Read More...
I agree with Ahmed. The term "association" is reserved for a very specific kind of entity, for example one where people sharing the same profession establish the rules and regulations that will govern their professional practice (lawyers' association, teachers' association, translators' association, etc.).Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

(certificate - degree)

Hello. Could you please clear up my confusion about the following two words? Which one is correct? Why? - A/An (certificate - degree) is the qualification given to someone who has successfully finished a university course. Thank you.Read More...
You are right. "qualification" used that way in the singular seems to be some British English use I'm not very familiar with:Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

the use of 'would'

Below is an excerpt from the book Chicken Soup for the Soul (Anthony Robbin's contribution). I wonder why he used 'would' instead of 'past simple' in this context. What's the exact purpose of employing 'would' here? I said, "Look down at the street. Look down there. Do you see all those vans?" They said, "Yeah, we see them." "Let's go get one," I said. First I tried walking out in front of vans as they were driving down the street. I learned something about New York drivers that day: They...Read More...
Hello, Babak, and welcome to the Grammar Exchange. Modal "would" is used to express habit in the past in those sentences. It would be equivalent to using the past simple tense.Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

How to suggest a sentence

How would you suggest a sentence to someone? Student: I wrote this sentence: XYZ. Is my sentence natural? a) Teacher: It's OK but this would be the normal way of expressing it: ABC. b) Teacher: It's OK but this will be the normal way of expressing it: ABC. c) Teacher: It's OK but this is the normal way of expressing it: ABC. Are they all correct?Read More...
Hi, Language learner, All three would be fine, or will be fine, or are fine (I'd only write a comma before but ). It depends on the teacher's certainty or, more than that, on the teacher's attitude: would will sound more polite (not to hurt the student's feelings), will is used to indicate a typical behavior (people will say it like this), and is states a fact (this is how they say it).Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

Object pronoun

In a passage about" first aid" I noticed the writer uses the a singular object pronoun for " person" and some times uses the plural object pronoun for " person" too , for example: ( If you find an ill or injured person, you must check the area around him \ her....... (If the person doesn' t reply, touch their shoulder or their........) Is there a rule for using the singular or plural object pronoun for the word " person" Thanks in advanceRead More...
Hi, Ahmed, The gender-neutral singular pronoun 'they' sounds better, especially in British English and is gaining more ground. He/She sounds fine if used only once, but the problem is that if repeated, it sounds clumsy. Michael Swan, 3rd edition, page 521 asserts that same point of view. The following link is very useful and I find the following part to be very interesting "This practice has become so popular that the American Dialect Society voted "they" (as a gender-neutral singular...Read More...
Last Reply By ahmed_btm · First Unread Post

Redundant phrase and foot note

In your response to our letter dated 1 January 2000, you provided on 1 May 2000, you state that you will take over our project in New York 88. On 1 May 2013, you provided response to our letter dated 1 January 2000, you state that you will take over our project in New York 88. Q1: Which of the above sentences are correct? And whether they have the same meaning. Q2: Also, if I wanna put as a foot note and exclude the statement. Can I just say: In your response to our letter dated 1 January...Read More...

Use "Of" or "With"?

Greetings all, I have some trouble deciding what to use between of and with. Below is the sentence. It highlights comparisons of revenue, cost and margin. It highlights comparisons with revenue, cost and margin. Which sentence would you use? Is there really any difference between the two? Thank you in advance!Read More...
Thank you Gustavo! I wish i could provide more syntax, but your answer really helps me to understand the difference between the two sentences! Thank you again!Read More...
Last Reply By Vanityoflife · First Unread Post

Simple or Perfect

Hi all Before my father retired, he ....... early. (had always slept) (always slept) I think : To be really accurate, the past perfect would be used, and is often seen in good writing. What do you think ?Read More...
I agree with Ahmed_btm that both are grammatically correct; however, I find them both unnatural. Native speakers generally speak of going to bed early rather than of sleeping early: Before my father retired, he always went to bed early. Before my father retired, he had always gone to bed early. On the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA), there are 123 results for "went to bed early" but only 2 for "slept early." Even "went to sleep early" has more results than "slept early."Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Don't vs Doesn't

Which sentence is correct? 1. My analogies and logic don't pan out. 2. My analogies and logic doesn't pan out. Both sound right to my ear. I looked it up, but the examples included "I, you, we, or they" for "don't" and "He, she, or it" for "doesn't," so I am not sure in the case of my sentence above. Thank you.Read More...
Hi, KC328, I see that (1) is the only correct one here. I don't think the subject refers to one unit here.Read More...
Last Reply By ahmed_btm · First Unread Post

word order

Hi all, I'd like to know why we say: this is a "beautiful beach" (adjective + noun), but we say: "are these beaches beautiful?" (noun + adjective). Or we even say: "these are beautiful beaches (adjective + noun)" / "there beaches are beautiful" (noun + adjective). Is there a rule for that? Or is it just a matter of learning the word order by context? Thanks a lot in advance. RegardsRead More...
Hi, Jessy—When forming questions, English speakers use a different sentence order from the normal sentence order (in assertions). We invert the subject and the auxiliary verb. The main verb "be" also functions as an auxiliary verb. Thus, when we wish to convert the assertion "These beaches are beautiful" into a question, we move the "be" verb ("are") to the front of the sentence, past the subject ("these beaches"). This gives "Are these beaches beautiful?" To review: These beaches are...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

That can be addressed

Could anyone please explain what the writer meant by "that can be addressed"? ▪Biotechnology is being used to speed up breeding programs for plants, livestock and fish and to extend the range of traits that can be addressed.Read More...
It's passive. Things that can be addressed are things that people can address.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

The use of preposition on "Loan asset & Loan liability"

Hello, I refer to the above matter. Loan asset and loan liability are accounting terms. Loan asset refers to an amount expected to be collected from someone. Loan liability: An amount expected to be paid. I am confused the use of the preposition to refer to from whom the loan asset/loan liability and your assistance is greatly appreciated. The amount owed by Jack to Ron was set-off against the loan asset from/to/of Jack's mum. (So basically Jack owed Ron and Ron said don't worry just set off...Read More...
Hi, Tony C, Here you can find quite a good explanation: In accounting, we usually speak about accounts payable (money owed) and accounts receivable (money to be collected). Is Jack's mum a moneylender, or are you referring to money she obtained through a loan? If the latter is the case, I have to understand that the amount owed by Jack was discounted from the money Jack's mum had in her account, which is not a usual practice at all. In any case, people have assets and liabilities, so "of"...Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Co-Moderator · First Unread Post

Sympathy appeal

Does this dialogue sound natural to you? What's the meaning of "sympathy appeal" here? S: Help me! I really need your help! B: Is this a sympathy appeal? S: No help me! They're hurting me. B: Who's hurting you?Read More...
I got that from this video: https://youtu.be/Wl5Ig2R_79QRead More...
Last Reply By Toaha · First Unread Post

Up high vs High up

▪Which one is grammatical and natural? 1) I do not like being up high. 2) I do not like being high up. Context: Suppose your friend says to you, "I am going to go skydiving" or, "I am going to start mountain climbing." You might say to them, "You're nuts," because maybe you're someone like me who is afraid of heights or who is scared of heights. I do not like being up high.Read More...
Thanks 😇Read More...
Last Reply By Toaha · First Unread Post

The home was too small for...

Do these sentences sound natural to you? Is there any other way of saying the 2nd part of these sentences? What's the meaning of "consumed in waves" here? ▪ The home was too small for everyone to even eat together. Dinners were consumed in waves — first the children, then the men, and finally the women.Read More...
Hi, Toaha—Again, it is important to give the source of a quotation (ideally a link) whenever you quote something at this website. "Waves" is an exaggeration. It refers to "waves" of people. Consider the following definition from the OED :Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post
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