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Noun clauses in indirect speech

(Reposted from old newsgroup on 3/14/03) I would appreciate your reply on the apparently simple error in the sentence: I'd like to know what did he say. Obviously, the correct form is: I'd like to know what he said. However, I am not sure exactly which rule of grammar is being violated. Do you think the following is correct? ˜What did he say' is used when ˜what' is being used to ask a question, whereas in ˜what he said', ˜what' means ˜that which'. Thanks in advance. Hoping to hear from you soon.Read More...
(Reposted from old newsgroup on 3/14/03) This last statement about "that which" is partly accurate, and partly not accurate Let's look first at the difference between direct and indirect questions, wh-questions in particular, although the rules for the verb are generally the same for yes-no questions. Direct questions are characterized by inversion"”reversing the order--of the grammatical subject and the "tense-carrying" element of the verb. In the case of the verb be, nothing need be added,...Read More...

'During' and other prepositions

(Reposted from old newsgroup on 3/14/03) What about prepositions that cannot be followed by gerunds, such as "during"? Are there other cases? GiseleRead More...
(Reposted from old newsgroup on 3/14/03) Hmm - some food for thought! Thanks! Gisele São Paulo, SP BrazilRead More...

Gerund or Participle

(Reposted from old newsgroup on 3/14/03) I have a sentence as follows: That girl is guilty of premeditatedly killing her dog. I want to know whether "killing" is this sentence is a participle or a gerund. Thank youRead More...
(Reposted from old newsgroup on 3/14/03) Thank you for such an eye-opening explanation! Gisele São Paulo, SP BrazilRead More...

Nouns as adjectives

(Reposted from old newsgroup on 3/14/03) I wonder if it is correct to say 'women jobs'? Wouldn't it be better to say 'woman jobs'?Read More...
(Reposted from old newsgroup on 3/14/03) You are absolutely correct to want to say "woman jobs," since the usual way to use a noun as an adjective is in the singular. Examples of this common way are apple tree and apple trees , shoe store and shoe stores , and child psychologist and child psychologist . However, there are exceptions to this "rule." One of the exceptions applies to the words "man" and "woman." Unlike most nouns, when "man" and "woman" are used as adjectives modifying a plural...Read More...

'Didn't use to' or 'didn't used to'?

(Reposted from old newsgroup on 3/14/03) On page 52 in the grammar box, there is "Didn't used to" and "didn't use to." We have always taught "didn't use to." If there is not a consensus, why put it in the book? It really messed up my students. Has anyone seen the same structure in other grammar texts? Unless a thorough linguistic data base is assembled, we should refrain from teaching our students something which departs from the "standard written language". Thanks. Osmond Duffis-SjogrenRead More...
(Reposted from old newsgroup on 3/14/03) The following was sent from Betty Azar. The text comes from the Teacher's Guide to Fundamentals of English Grammar, p. 25. It refers to CHART 2-11: EXPRESSING PAST HABIT: USED TO. _______ "Interestingly, investigation into the question and negative forms of used to showed that there is no consensus on which forms are correct: did you used to vs. did you use to and didn't used to vs. didn't use to. Some references say one is correct but not the other...Read More...

'Much less interesting'/ 'much less fat'

(Reposted from old newsgroup on 3/14/03) Hi My question might sound a bit stupid & primitive for so called native speakers, but anyway I have to ask it. I know that I can say a phrase like : this book is much more interesting than that one. Or: far more interested/a lot more interested than that one. But can I say : this book is much/a lot/far less interesting than that one? Would the second phrase be grammatically correct? And what about short adjectives like "fat, sad" ? I guess , I...Read More...
(Reposted from old newsgroup on 3/14/03) This is a correction to Rachel's posting. Because Rachel's "summary" of my answer above contains some inaccuracies and confusions, I will again state my conclusions as they were written. Rachel says "Greenrat's question and Marilyn's answer address two things: 1) "Less" is used with long adjectives, but not with short ones." No, I said that "less" is indeed used with short adjective. But it is not used nearly as frequently as it is with long...Read More...

'It's me' or 'It's I'?

(Reposted from old newsgroup on 3/14/03) I know that "It is I" is correct, yet I hesitate to use it. And, I always hear "It is me." What is correct, and, what should I say? Thanks. MC in New York State [This message was edited by Admin on March 13, 2003 at 09:01 AM.]Read More...
(Reposted from old newsgroup on 3/14/03) In the sentence "It's me," "me" -- an object pronoun -- is in the position of predicate nominative. The edit predicate nominative is supposed to be in the subjective case -- "I," for example -- like the subject, according to Latinate grammar rules. The sentence, strictly speaking, should be "It is I" or "It's I." However, a person seriously using "It's I," or "It is I" in informal speech in the conversation you describe might be considered affected.Read More...

Reduction of adjective clause to adjective phrase

(Reposted from old newsgroup on 2/13/03) I have a question about page 290, chart 13-5, letters (e) and (f) of the Advanced Azar. I was wondering if you might know a more precise rule to explain when it is possible to omit the subject pronoun and change the verb to its -ing form when changing an adjective clause to a phrase. I am helping a student prepare for the Toefl test, and he recently asked me why it was not possible to write, "It is gravity pulling objects toward the earth," instead of...Read More...
(Reposted from old newsgroup on 2/13/03) The first sentence It is gravity that pulls objects toward the earth is indeed a cleft sentence. A cleft sentence has the "dummy" subject it and a form of be , plus a dependent clause. The dependent clause in a cleft sentence looks very much like a (restrictive) adjective clause, but it is not. Several features distinguish this kind of clause from a restrictive adjective clause*. For one thing, the introductory words in this kind of clause are usually...Read More...

What is aspect?

(Reposted from old newsgroup on 2/13/03) Hi! I'm a second year student,and I cannot understand what is the category of aspect? What is the difference between aspect and tense?I've consulted Longman Contemporary Grammar,but still,it's not clear for me. AnonymousRead More...
(Reposted from old newsgroup on 2/13/03) This topic would take much more space than we have here to explain fully, but here is a brief snapshot. The distinction between tense and aspect in the English verb system is described by Celce-Murcia and Larsen-Freeman* thus: "Two qualities verbs have are tense and aspect.... tense traditionally refers to the time of an event's occurrence...while a typical aspect distinction denotes whether or not the event has occurred earlier (perfect aspect) or is...Read More...

Singular or plural verb?

(Reposted from old newsgroup on 2/13/03) Researchers have found a combination of substances that helps you to lose weight without post-reduction problems. The above sentence uses "helps" as a singular verb of "that" ( which can represent either "substances" or " a combination of substances"). Is it correct to use "helps" in this particular sentence? ananja ananja@mychi.comRead More...
(Reposted from old newsgroup on 2/13/03) Researchers have found a combination of substances that helps you to lose weight. ________________ The verb in your sentence can be "helps" if you are referring to the combination that helps. It makes sense if you think of the word "combination" in this way: that researchers have found a combination, composed of substances, that helps you to lose weight. Examples from Google which confirm this kind of thought process are: a) A combination of...Read More...

'Can't have' vs. 'couldn't have

(Reposted from old newsgroup on 2/13/03) Can these two modal perfect forms be used interchangeably or is there any formal usage restriction in either case? I´have found it difficult to explain this to my students.Thanks.Read More...
(Reposted from old newsgroup on 2/13/03) As you realize, references don't usually address "can't have" vs. "couldn't have" directly. One that does mention it, however, is Betty Azar, in in Understanding and Using English Grammar, 3e (Prentice Hall Regents, 1999). On Page 181, she places "can't have" and "couldn't have" in a chart showing their status on a scale of probability. They are equal. The title of the chart is "DEGREES OF CERTAINTY: PAST TIME," and the section of the chart is "PAST...Read More...

'Results' + ? preposition; 'the' + names of banks

(Reposted from old newsgroup on 2/13/03) Could you mind telling the following sentence is correct or not? Results of ABC Bank, Bank of China and HSBC Bank have been obtained. Thanks Kennethckh kennethckh@hotmail.comRead More...
(Reposted from old newsgroup on 2/13/03) As Rachel points out, "results from " indicates the source of the results. In contrast, "results of " occurs with such nouns as experiment, election, study, search, survey, talks (between parties), pilot program, lottery, improvements, downsizing, shakeup, interview For example: We haven't received the results of the study yet What were the results of your talks with her parents? The noun object of "of" represents an action, process, or procedure that...Read More...

'We' or 'us'?

(Reposted from old newsgroup on 2/13/03) I'm embarrassed to ask, but I've done my best to try to definitively ascertain which of these sentences is correct. Still, when I apply the one rule that sounds like it should be THE answer to my question, it simply doesn't sound right. The sentences: 1) It always seems to come back to that, for us parents--responsibility to the children. 2) It always seems to come back to that, for we parents--responsibility to the children. Searching the internet...Read More...
(Reposted from old newsgroup on 2/13/03) The form "for us parents," despite being the correct form, sounds wrong to many people for very good reasons. For one thing, us plus a noun as object of a preposition (e.g. for us parents, to us citizens, with us students) seems to be unique in its object form. This appositive usage is found only with the pluralpersonal pronouns, and then with not all of them. And with these, it's hard to see that the pronoun must be in the object form, because, for...Read More...

'Was' or 'is'?

(Reposted from old newsgroup on 2/13/03) Here's a "tense" question I was hoping you could help me with: "I often think about my mother...I saw her one year and four months ago in Poland. I have great respect for her because he WAS or IS always very helpful to me... OR is there another better possibility??? Thank you, LaurieRead More...
(Reposted from old newsgroup on 2/13/03) The verb could be "was," or "is" or even "has been." 1) If she's alive and very much with you, of course you would say: "...I have great respect for her because she HAS ALWAYS BEEN/ HAS BEEN/ IS/ IS ALWAYS very helpful to me." 2) If she's alive, but she was helpful mostly in the past, you could say: "...I have great respect for her because she WAS/ WAS ALWAYS so helpful to me when I was growing up." 3) If she's not alive, but you still think of her...Read More...
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