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Who or Whom?

See these sentences and tell me which one is correct. 1- a) I'm gonna hug someone *who* I love; B) I'm gonna hug someone *whom* I love; 2- a) I'm gonna receive something from *whom* I expected to; B) I'm gonna receive something from *who* I expected toRead More...
Harry O'Neil wrote: Well, that changes things. In proper formal English, "whom" would be the more correct choice in both (1) and (2). But since the speaker uses the informal "gonna", adherence to such formality would be incongruous. I suppose that for sentence (2), I would go with (B), although the word order seems awkward to me. But for (1) I would omit the pronoun entirely: 1-c: I'm gonna hug someone I love. DocVRead More...
Last Reply By Doc V · First Unread Post

Reflexive pronouns or Object Pronouns?

Look at this sentence: > Alexander took a little longer to warm (himself?) up with Joseph, since his cold heart prevented *him*/ *himself* from strangers to come inside; Should I: 1) use "himself" in: warm (himself) up? 2) should I use "him" or "himself"? Thanks in advanceRead More...
Many thanks.Read More...
Last Reply By Harry O'Neil · First Unread Post

Mass-enablement Campaign

Mass-Enablement campaign or Mass-enablement campaign or Mass enablement campaign And why? AP standards if that matters.Read More...
Hi, I think that "mass" is a adjective in "mass enablement" (meaning "large-scale enablement") and will, as such, do without a hyphen. Other examples: - mass media - mass demonstrations - mass destruction - mass hysteria - mass tourism - mass education - mass meeting - mass exodus - mass audience There may be some cases where hyphenation is allowed as an alternative, for example mass market or mass-market. As for capitalization, we can capitalize the name of the team (as we would if it were...Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Contributor · First Unread Post

"Ways" as a singular noun

"Ryssdal: Yeah, but you’re 45. You’ve got a ways to go yet." In the sentence above , "ways" is plural in form but treated as a singular noun. Is this kind of usage popular in the U.S. ? If so, are there similar cases, that plural form nouns treated as singular in grammatical construction? source: https://www.nashvillepublicrad...alcon-doors#stream/0 Thank you very much.Read More...
DocV, I totally share your feelings. I know what " Ways and Means Committee " and so on, but why "a ways"? A mystery. Thank you very much! KenRead More...
Last Reply By ken · First Unread Post

subject number agreement.

This is something I've always wanted to ask. Is it more correct to say: They asked us to leave our hat at the door. They asked us to leave our hats at the door. I mean, they're both wrong in a way. The first sentence could be read as the people at the door have one hat between them . And the second sentence could be read as the people at the door each have more than one hat. Thank you!Read More...
Dijahtil, We want hats (plural) here, assuming that more than one member of the group is wearing a hat. If one man is wearing more than one hat, I would ask security to watch him. If only one person in the group is wearing only one hat, then "they", however many people that is, asked him or her to remove his or her hat (singular). DocVRead More...
Last Reply By Doc V · First Unread Post

Is it a cleft sentence?

Greetings. And again, this is why it’s so important to listen to your internal whisper. It’s the same one that compelled Abraham Lincoln and Oskar Schindler to make the correct moral choices. (From:https://singjupost.com/steven-spielberg-speech-at-harvard-commencement-2016-full-transcript/2/) Is "It's ...that..." here a cleft sentence ? Or is "it" just a pronoun refering to "your internal whisper" ?Read More...
Hi, Robby zhu, In your sentence, "it" is a pronoun that refers to "your internal whisper," and "that" introduces a relative clause, where "that" functions as the subject. However, I understand your confusion, because a cleft sentence would be similarly constructed. What makes the sentence above a normal sentence is the presence of "it" and especially "the same one ," in reference to the "internal whisper" mentioned in the previous sentence. This would be a cleft sentence: - It is their...Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Contributor · First Unread Post

another comma + infinitive question

a. This is a flare gun, to use in case of emergency. b. This is a flare gun, to use only in case of emergency. c. This is a flare gun, to be used in case of emergency. d. This is a flare gun, to be used only in case of emergency. Are the above sentences grammatically correct? Obviously, 'only' changes the meaning somewhat. But does the comma work in those sentences? It is there to give the sentence a double focus. We are conveying two bits of information that are equally important. It is...Read More...

What part of speech is "the closest"

Hi ,everyone. What is the part of speech of "the closest",in the following sentence ? What's the closest you've ever come to stalking someone? Things done in adolescense count. (From:https://www.quizony.com/how-crazy-are-you/21.html) I understand that it comes from the structure "come close to doing something.", so it should be an adjective. But somebody would argue that "the closest (state?position?)" is a noun modifies by the sentence that follows. What do you think?Read More...
That is quite convincing. Thanks,GUSTAVORead More...
Last Reply By Robby zhu · First Unread Post

the simple present tense or the present continuous?

Dear Contributors! Would you please do me a favour? 1. Covering 75% of the surface of the earth is the vast stretch of water. (✓) 2. The vast stretch of water is covering 75% of the surface of the earth. ( ×) 3. The vast stretch of water covers 75% of the surface of the earth. (✓) We have known that Sentence 1 and Sentence 3 have the same meaning, and that Sentence 2 is wrong with the present coutinuous tense. Now, I have a question that is most intriguing: Is "covering...is" in Sentence 1...Read More...
Thank you a lot, GUSTAVO . Your explanation is extremely convincing.Read More...
Last Reply By sunshine · First Unread Post

Complex sentence/compound-complex

Hello, I don't understand what type of sentence is this. Is it complex or compound-complex? Is "and" coordinating conjunction here? Is it a sentence with two relative clauses? Thank you in advance.Read More...
Hello, Yukiya, and welcome to the Grammar Exchange. Compound complex sentences are formed by two or more coordinate main clauses (with at least one of them containing a subordinate clause ), for example: - This is the reflection of who you are and this is the reflection of who you have become. As you can see, both clauses can stand alone and are therefore two main clauses (in this case, with both of them containing a subordinate clause) joined by a coordinating conjunction -> compound...Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Contributor · First Unread Post

Skills or Skill?

Hi all GE members and moderators, Listening, speaking, reading and writing skills are the four important skills in learning English. In my opinion, listening skill is the most the difficult skill of the four. Is the word "skill" correctly used in the above sentence? Someone tells me that "skill" should be "skills" in this case. I have had a look in some dictionaries and I see that when it comes to a particular skill, the word skill is plural. If I want to express a singular skill, how should...Read More...
Thank you so much Gustavo and David for you information.Read More...
Last Reply By tonyck 2 · First Unread Post

when two prep "to " meet

its context: https://www.economist.com/busi...e-luxury-goods-firms Grammatically,you need to have " clues to which..." and " to which... belong ". So is "to" double duty here? (My guess is that "clues to to which " is redundant, so the writer left out one "to")Read More...
Thank you,GUSTAVO . I was not confident enough to say the writer was wrong.Read More...
Last Reply By Robby zhu · First Unread Post

Capitalisation

I work in law, and when referring to an order made by a specific judge, we sometimes give it a name/description. For example, if Justice Caddick makes an order, we might refer to it as the Caddick Order and/or the Caddick J. Order and/or the Judge Caddick Order. Would one capitalise those names/descriptions? On the one hand, one could argue those are descriptions, not names. One could also argue that Caddick Order is shorthand for Caddick's order, which would not be capitalised. Also, is...Read More...
Many thanks.Read More...
Last Reply By wpc205 · First Unread Post

all - half

Hello. Which one is correct? - I baked a cake. I gave (all - half) of it to my sister. Thank you.Read More...
Hello, Ahmed Imam Attia, "Half" is the better choice: I baked a cake and gave half of it to my sister. "All" doesn't work well there, because you could just use "it": I baked a cake and gave it to my sister. If you want to emphasize the cake in its wholeness, use "the whole thing": I baked a cake and gave the whole thing to my sister. "All of it" would, however, be natural in eating contexts: I baked a cake and ate all of it myself. There you could also use "the whole thing."Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

a great technique to keep in mind

a. This is a great technique to keep in mind when arguing with narcissistic people. Is that sentence slightly ambiguous? Is it a great technique per se which is to be used when you are arguing with narcissistic people? ( [a great technique] which is to be used...) Maybe it is also a great technique for arguing with other types of people. Or is it a great technique only when arguing with narcissistic people? Would a comma after 'a great technique' change anything? b. This is a great technique...Read More...
Hi, Azz, I understand (a) as asserting only that it is a great technique when arguing with narcissistic people. However, asserting only that does not imply that one is asserting that it is a great technique only when arguing with narcissistic people. It may be a great technique in other contexts, too. Let's look at an analogy. If I said, "These are great shoes to have when going camping," I would not be implying that they are not great shoes at other times. I mean simply that it is great to...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Difference between "rains" and "rain"

The following is an excerpt from the Washington Post article of Oct. 25 regarding Tyhoon Hagibis which struck Japan on the same day. Heavy rains flood areas of Japan recovering from typhoons Torrential rain caused flooding and mudslides Friday in towns east of Tokyo, leaving one dead and two missing and expanding damage in areas still recovering from recent typhoons. The headline referrs to "heavy rains" and the body mentions "torrential rain." I wonder if there is any rational using the...Read More...
Hi, Fujibei: There is no incompatibility between "heavy rains" and "torrential rain." We sometimes speak of rains, snows, winds. This tends to have a literary quality. Perhaps you've heard of the Hemingway book The Snows of Kilimanjaro . You can understand "heavy rains" as referring to heavy/torrential rain showers, or to periods of heavy/torrential rain. Whether we speak of heavy/torrential rain showers as doing the flooding, or of heavy/torrential rain as doing the flooding, it amounts to...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Capitalistion

What are people's views on capitalisation in constructions such as the HSBC Letter or the WeTransfer File? On the one hand, they could be argued to be common nouns (as in one could imagine saying an HSBC letter or a WeTransfer file). One does not normally capitalise a common noun simply when we add a definite article. On the other hand, one could treat them as the name of a specific thing if we plan on using them to only refer to that letter (as in one could use it to only refer to that HSBC...Read More...

Hamza

............................others might have been satisfied, Hamza had higher ambitions. 1-when 2-where 3-if 4-whoseRead More...
One more thing, Abo Hamza. The subject heading of the thread should be specific to the grammar question that you are asking about. DocVRead More...
Last Reply By Doc V · First Unread Post

Relative word: as or that?

Hi everyone! Some grammarians argue that "as"can also introduce a relative clause. Questions: 1,So in the following sentence, which word should I choose, as or that ? Or both are possible? We should respect such people as/that have made great contributions to the world. 2,If I replace "such" with "the": We should respect the people as/that have made great contributions to the world. Will answer be the same? I have received a lot of help from you experts. Your answers have always been so...Read More...
I get it .Thanks.Read More...
Last Reply By Robby zhu · First Unread Post

man/husband and wife

I proclaim you man and wife. I proclaim you husband and wife. Which sentence is correct in modern English? Many thanks.Read More...
Wife was the Old English word for woman, i used to be pronounced as an e sound, so the word would sound as weef to modern ears. So pronouncing a couple man and wife just means man and woman. Hence the word midwife means 'with wife' and fishwife means fisherwoman, not someone married to a fish. Husband was originally house-bond. Other words of interest us Lord which in Old English came from hlaford which meant loaf-ward i.e. the bread-winner. As for pronouns, heo could mean he or she, the s...Read More...
Last Reply By Colin · First Unread Post

that

Hello, In the following sentence, what is the function of "that"? Is it an error or is there a function that I overlooked? "In some places holidays are celebrated that , although named differently, share similar themes: contact with the spirit world involving the spirits of the dead, fairies, witches, and even the devil and demon angels. " https://www.jw.org/en/library/magazines/g201309/truth-about-halloween/ appleRead More...
Ah, now I see the construction. Thank you, DocV and Gustavo. appleRead More...
Last Reply By apple · First Unread Post
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