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Coupled with this

This sentences have taken from CAMBRIDGE IELTS 4. "In 1993, Dr Laver and his colleagues published a survey of 289 Sydney people who attended eight alternative therapists in Sydney. These practices offered a wide range of alternative therapies from 25 therapists. Those surveyed had experienced chronic illnesses, for which orthodox medicine had been able to provide little relief. They commented that they liked the holistic approach of their alternative therapists and the friendly, concerned...Read More...
Hi, Nousher Ahmed, In the phrase 'coupled with this,' "this" refers to the survey of 289 Sydney people mentioned at the beginning and described throughout the passage. The writer evidently decided to omit the noun because it is then used to refer to other relevant surveys and it would have been redundant to say "coupled with this survey and a number of other relevant surveys ."Read More...

Dependent clause after conjunction

This sentences have taken from CAMBRIDGE IELTS 4. "The 550,000 consultations with alternative therapists reported in the 1990 survey represented about an eight of the total number of consultations with medically qualified personnel covered by the survey, according to Dr Laver and colleagues writing in the Australian Journal of Public Health in 1993. 'A better educated and less accepting public has become disillusioned with the experts in general, and increasingly sceptical and empirically...Read More...
Hi, Nousher Ahmed, First of all, let's deal with your sentences 1 and 2: Sentence 1 can also be written without a comma, because the two coordinate, independent clauses are quite short: "I am Hassan and he is Nousher." Sentence 2 can take a comma if you add one or more items to your list: "I eat rice, bread, and vegetables." Now, let's analyze your longer sentence: After "become" there is a compound subjective complement formed by two adjective phrases that are quite long: Sujective...Read More...

Presence of two verbs in a sentence

This sentences have taken from CAMBRIDGE IELTS 4. "Disenchantment with orthodox medicine has seen the popularity of alternative therapies in Australia climb steadily during the past 20 years." I think, here 'climb' is acting as a verb. Am I right? What is the subject of this verb? "Disenchantment with orthodox medicine has seen the popularity of alternative therapies in Australia" is able to make a full sense. It is impossible for a sentence to have more than one verb. How this sentence...Read More...
Hi, Nousher Ahmed, You may indeed find more than one verb in a sentence. Let's see some examples: SIMPLE SENTENCE WITH A COMPOUND PREDICATE: - She sings and dances very well. COMPOUND SENTENCE (containing two or more coordinate clauses): - She sings well but her sister sings even better. COMPLEX SENTENCE (containing a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses): - Mary, who doesn't sing very well, won a competition last week because she practised a lot. There are also compond complex...Read More...

on my own...

I have collected the followings from various sources as your site. I would like to study them accurately. so, would you tell me, as a native speaker, if they are right, if so, would you add them what you think of I should learn? You would say, 'I want to find out about it on my own.' But you wouldn't say 'by myself' because 'on my own' means for myself, and not just 'by myself.' You could say 'I went swimming by myself', and that would mean that there was no one there swimming with you. But...Read More...

a question about which

hi the question is about this sentence 'A diet restricted in sodium,may be prescribed for a person with any disease ……,there is an abnormal retention of fluid in the body,since sodium normally aids in the retention of fluid in the body tissues.' For this question the right answer is in which but my first questin is that I don’t know why we use in which and not which coz at the end of sentence we have in the body and 2) if it is non restrictive adj clause why we use comma after which coz we...Read More...
Hi, Raha, First of all, please note that there should not be a comma between "A diet restricted in sodium" and "may be prescribed," as well as after "in which." The result would be: 'A diet restricted in sodium may be prescribed for a person with any disease in which there is an abnormal retention of fluid in the body, since sodium normally aids in the retention of fluid in the body tissues.' "In which" refers to the disease, not to the body: In this disease, there is an abnormal retention...Read More...

profitable for vs profitable to

Hi all, Of course, it would be more profitable for the ranch if I culled those animals by taking them to the slaughter house Is this sentence correct or "profitable to" should be used. Thanks in advance Saikat1Read More...
Thanks David I am starting right away with the book. Perhaps it will give me some more insight. Regards Saikat1Read More...

or vs. ,(comma)

These might be accompanied by a verbal text (as in a song), or crooned without lyrics, or produced by all sorts of musical instruments, or embedded in an enormously com­plex, multidimensional work of art, like an opera. As a native speaker, could we consider all these or's as one or and then rewrite this sentence? Thanks in advanceRead More...
Hi, Nima_Persian, You can use only one OR before the last term of the series, but I think that in this case the series will appear to be closed: - These might be accompanied by A, B, C, or D. (We only have these four options.) When you use OR repeatedly, it seems to me that the series is not closed, so other options are also implicitly possible. In this case, it sounds as if the sentence were reflecting the writer's or the speaker's line of thought in a stream-of-consciousness fashion: -...Read More...
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discerning the true position of adverb

...since life first appeared on earth. ...since first life appeared on earth. ...since life appeared on earth first. Would anyone please readily explain the difference between these? Or, could you possibly tell me how to distinguish where to put adverbs in such circumstances? Any help would be appreciatedRead More...
Hi, Nima_Persian, Welcome to G.E.! As you know, the usual word order for English sentences is: Subject + Verb + Objects/Complements + Adverbial of Manner + Adverbial of Place + Adverbial of Time. However, one-word adverbs and short adverb phrases, mainly of time and manner, usually disrupt this order and are positioned between Subject and Verb or after the auxiliary in compound verb forms. This is the case with "first," so the correct option would be: ...since life first appeared on earth (=...Read More...

adverb before adj clause

hello i want to know is it right to use adverb before adj clause?? in this example we use still before clause but i dont see it in any book...what is grammatical point? others still, regarding hapiness as a state of mind ,have tried to distinguish it from pleasure on the groundsRead More...
thank you very much your reply is really helpfulRead More...

Past or Past Perfect

I would like to know which tense is correct, past or past perfect in the following sentences: 1- I had to go and visit my father. 2- I had had to go and visit my father. Thank you for your help. CyrusRead More...
Hi, Cyrus, Next time you post pairs of sentences like these, please provide a context. As you know, Past Perfect is usually used to refer to a past action or state previous to another past action or state. Even in this situation (past before past), Past Simple may also be used to refer to the previous action or state if the sequence of events is clear enough, in which case it will sound more natural and less formal than Past Perfect. Here is a pair of sentences including yours to show when...Read More...

correct placement of adverb

Hi all, I came across this statement while reading practical grammar : laws were quickly passed so that this abuse was checked . When i intend to mean that the result was ultimately to check the abuse is it not better to write : laws were so quickly passed that this abuse was checked . ThanksRead More...
Hi gustavo It's pretty clear now. Thanks Saikat1Read More...

countable or uncountable

I wonder why "fat" "carbohydrate" and "protein" can have the plural form as in the following quotes. Aren't those nouns uncountable? 1. The Russian consumer protection agency said Friday it is taking McDonald's to court for selling foods that contain more fats and carbohydrates than are allowed by national regulations. 2. Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats supply 90% of the dry weight of the diet and 100% of its energy.Read More...
Hi, Fujibei, There are many nouns that can be uncountable OR countable, depending on whether you refer to the substance or material in general o to different types or varieties of the same. Chemistry is not my specialty, but I vaguely remember from my school days that, according to their composition, there are different carbohydrates, proteins, fats, alcohols, hydrocarbons, etc. (i.e. different varieties of carbohydrate, protein, fat, alcohol, hydrocarbon, etc.) We can say that these nouns...Read More...

My analysis of compound complex sentence broken down. Is it correct?

Hi everyone, I am interested in finding out if the sentence is correct and if I am correct in my analysis. If not, I would like to know where I went wrong. Here is the sentence: Once I have completed implementing the changes, I will contact you, and we will schedule a remote session for you to see the finished product. I have broken it down below: Dependent clause: Once I have completed implementing the changes Independent clause: I will contact you. Coordinating conjunction: , and...Read More...
Thanks! ahmed_btm and Gustavo, Contributor I really appreciate both of your feedback.Read More...

appositive clause

1. There was some hope that the victim would survive. In the sentence above, "that the victim would survive" is an appositive clause. Can this work with "a story" as in sentence 2 instead of "some hope"? 2. There was a story that the victim would survive. If not, why not? AppleRead More...
Thank you, David. So communication here is closer in meaning to "news" "report" or "information". AppleRead More...

Gerund verb

The following sentences have been taken from CAMBRIDGE IELTS 4. "Many studies have shown that children harbour misconceptions about 'pure', curriculum science. These misconceptions do not remain isolated but become incorporated into multifaceted, but organised, conceptual framework, making it and the component ideas, some of which are erroneous, more robust but also accessible to modification." 1. "Making fire, he goes to market."- Here, 'making' indicates to a work that is performed by him.Read More...
Hi, Nousher Ahmed, In the second sentence, "it" is a pronoun that refers back to " a multifaceted, but organised, conceptual framework." There is a compound direct object for making: "it (the conceptual framework) AND the component ideas." See another example: He finally married Mary, making her (i.e. Mary) and her family very happy.Read More...

Where do the hyphens go?

Where do the hyphens go in the following? 1. chocolate chip cookie dough ice cream 2. Joe said, "Mike applied for the assistant store manager trainee position." 3. Frank said, "Sam applied for the assistant store manager position." 4. Jack said, "Dave applied for the store manager position." Thank you.Read More...
Thank you, David.Read More...

Not only ..... ..... but also

The following sentences have been taken from CAMBRIDGE IELTS 4. "Many studies have shown that children harbour misconceptions about 'pure', curriculum science. These misconceptions do not remain isolated but become incorporated into multifaceted, but organised, conceptual framework, making it and the component ideas, some of which are erroneous, more robust but also accessible to modification." I know that 'but also' is used when there has a presence of 'not only' in a sentence. But 'not...Read More...
Hi, Nousher Ahmed, Although it is true that "but also" is usually accompanied by "not only," this is not always the case. You can also use "but also" alone. In your example, it could mean something like "but at the same time."Read More...

Omission of be verb

The following sentences have been taken from CAMBRIDGE IELTS 4. "These observations are generally consistent with our previous studies of pupils' views about the use and conservation of rainforests, in which girls were shown to be more sympathetic to animals and expressed views which seem to place an intrinsic value on non-human animal life." Has there 'were' that is omitted before the word 'expressed'? i,e I want to know either is it necessary to place 'were' before 'expressed' or not?Read More...
Hi, Nousher Ahmed, There is no omission of "were" because "expressed" is a verb in the active form, while "were shown" is a verb in the passive voice. Compare: - The study showed (active voice) that girls were more sympathetic to animals -> Girls were shown (passive voice) to be more sympathetic to animals. - Girls expressed (active voice) views ... -> Views were expressed (passive voice)Read More...

Pair up of sentences

This sentences have taken from CAMBRIDGE IELTS 4. "Volunteer 'apprentices' pair up with one of the last living speakers of a Native American tongue to learn a traditional skill such as basket weaving, with instruction exclusively in the endangered language." Here "Volunteer 'apprentices' pair up with one of the last living speakers of a Native American tongue to learn a traditional skill such as basket weaving," and "with instruction exclusively in the endangered language." are the two parts...Read More...
Hi, Nousher Ahmed, The first part of the sentence means that apprentices are in the process of learning basket weaving from a person who only speaks a native language that is about to disappear. The second part of the sentence says that teaching is done exclusively in that language. We can infer that the only possibility for these apprentices to learn how to weave baskets, at least from this person, lies in communicating in that language that is close to extinction.Read More...

check the sentence, please

Hello Could you correct the sentence? Jim Henry,the CBS’s economic expert said that despite the Kia and the Hyundai had had higher sales within the past 12 months compared with the 2009 in the U.S...... Tank youRead More...
Hi, Majid, The text now contains new mistakes and some corrections as compared with the one you posted before. Considering the expanded context, I'd change have had in my reply to your first posting to had had.Read More...

such material as/materials as such

This watch is made of .......... gold,silver and copper. (such materials as/materials as such) Thanks in advance This question from TOEFL tests and there was a student who asked me this sentence, at the same time I answered him by telling him (such materials as) that's why I want any expert or pioneer in this field to reassure me. Number two: I want to understand the use of (as such) in details.Read More...
Hi, poet12, I've always seen and used "such as" to introduce examples. However, I've found many occurrences of "such + plural noun + as," also to introduce examples, on Internet pages that seem to be reliable. Perhaps David or Amy can help us with this one. Please note that "as such" means something completely different. For example: I am the legitimate owner of this watch and, as such, I can sell it whenever I wish. (Here "as such" means "in my capacity as owner of the watch.")Read More...

Immunity varies from age to age.

I'd appreciate it if someone would answer my question. Thanks in advance. Are A and B both correct? Sorry there's no context. Please just analyze. A: Culture varies from age to age. (Age here means a period of history.) B: Immunity varies from age to age. (Age here means the number of years a person has lived.) I suppose B is not quite correct. The better form would be "Immunity varies with age" or "Immunity varies by age".Read More...
--Thank you David for your sample: Immunity varies according to a person's age. Of course you can use "depending on" instead of "according to", can't you? Another question is -----What's difference between "Immunity varies with age" and "Immunity varies by age"? I think "by" here means a kind section or classification, but I'm not so sure about the usage of "with" here. Does it mean some kind of correlation?Read More...

check the sentence, please

Hello Would you please check the sentence? - Evaluation of relationship- comparison of religious orientation with mental health in war handicapped and ordinary people Thanks a lotRead More...
Hello David Thanks for your reply. 1- Yes, I see. - This is the title of an article. 2- Let me correct it. - Evaluation of relationship- comparison of war handicapped and ordinary people in religious orientation and mental healthRead More...
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