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Each /every

What is the right answer here :"(Each - Every) engineer in the factory was given a separate job to do.Read More...
Hi all, I agree with Ahmed_BTM (who, by the way, is doing a great job helping us to answer some questions) that both "each" and "every" can be used. Please notice that the noun phrase in question is restricted by the postmodifier "in the factory," so it is clear that we are not referring to engineers in general, but only to those who work in the factory. The first two examples of "every" in the Longman dictionary are precisely along those lines: • She bought presents for every member of her...Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Contributor · First Unread Post

commas and periods

Hello, Here is a part of self-introduction of an English proof reader born and educated in the UK. I like to encourage students as much as possible, I am here to help and I want to get the best out of our customers. I want them to feel comfortable working with me and students must never get upset by my corrections, they are there to help, I never want to embarrass the student or make them feel they have lost confidence in carrying on learning the subject. I copied it from the website and...Read More...
Thank you again for your kind reply. AppleRead More...
Last Reply By apple · First Unread Post

Perambulatory

ahmad
Hello, everyone, With a view to ensure whether I could use ' perambulatory' in a certain way (which I will come to later on), I ran a search on COCA and came upon the following: "Such guarantees of public input reflect the Parties' perambulatory affirmation of the importance of public participation in conserving, protecting, and enhancing the environment." https://corpus.byu.edu/coca/ I don't understand the meaning of the word in question in the above sentence. Would someone help me...Read More...
Hello again, Ahmad, Yes, I believe those two sentences are fine and express the meaning you wish them to express. I like "the perambulatory orders" the best. "Perambulatory orders" is similar to "grammatical errors," which refers to errors of a grammatical nature, not to errors having the virtue of being grammatical. The reason I have qualified my answer with "I believe" is that I am not at home with "perambulatory." I don't think I have ever once used the word in real life.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

" what" vs "which"

What or which : which one should be used? What/which medicine is good for boosting immunity of children? What/which is the longest river in the world? I think both are correct.Read More...
Hi, Subhajit, Yes, you can correctly use either "what" or "which" there. The latter will tend to communicate that the speaker is thinking of a specific set of medicines or rivers: "Which [of these rivers] is the longest river in the world?" The first question does contain a grammatical mistake. You need to use "the" before "immunity of children." The "of"-phrase makes "the" necessary there. Another option is to use the possessive: "for boosting children's immunity."Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Still Less

ahmad
Hello, everyone, Is the following sentence correct? The release of the toxic gas in the theater had terrible consequences: people could hardly find their bearings, less still the exit, far still less their belongings. Thanks.Read More...
Thanks, David. I was myself less sure of the correctness of the sentence, although I failed to notice the order of words previously, but the construction as a whole was what interested me the most. Your recommendations, especially the second one, are a great help, which I hope to find myriad situations to use in. Gustavo, thanks for your recommendation. It is great too.Read More...
Last Reply By ahmad · First Unread Post

The Undersigned/Explainer

ahmad
Hello, everyone, While responding to somebody in writing , can one refer to oneself by using words like, the undersigned, the responder, the explainer, the interlocutor, and the replier? 1. The explainer/undersigned is of the opinion that any further delay on your part will have far reaching consequences. What are various other acceptable ways of referring to oneself? Thanks.Read More...
Hi, Gustavo and DocV, I got "the undersigned" part. In fact, I see it used often. But I need more on the topic. Suppose, I am in the business of making highly formal communications with my senior routinely. Within such a setting, if I am asked to explain something or to give my opinion on some matter, etc, do I have the option to refer to myself as "the responder/the replier/the explainer"? Thanks.Read More...
Last Reply By ahmad · First Unread Post

as a cowboy

1) That movie featured John Smith in his last role as a cowboy. 2) That movie featured John Smith in his last role, as a cowboy. Are both sentences correct and correctly punctuated? Is there a difference in the meanings? Gratefully, NaviRead More...
Hi, Navi, (1) is ambiguous. His last role may have been as a cowboy or he may have had other roles afterwards. (2) clearly states the last role he played was that of a cowboy.Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Contributor · First Unread Post

tomorrow in ABC Mall or in ABC Mall tomorrow

I have made up two sentences below. (1) We will meet in ABC Mall tomorrow. (2) We will meet tomorrow in ABC Mall. All of my non-native English speaking friends think my first sentence is correct and my second one is awkward. Is (2) really awkward? Thanks a lot for your help.Read More...
Hi, Ansonman, I do find (2) awkward, because you are altering the normal word order of adverbials (manner - place - time) for no apparent reason.Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Contributor · First Unread Post

Didn't have to or needn't have pp

Hello, The following sentence is from a school book: "We didn't have a test today so I .............for it last night!" A- didn't have to revise B- needn't have revised The guide of answers says "B" But I inquire why not "A". I think that "A" is OK as it means that we didn't revise last night because we didn't have a test today.Read More...
David, you obviously posted while I was still writing my last bit, as often happens, but I don't think I've contradicted you. In fact, I completely agree with your logic. I will say that you are absolutely correct, with regard both to your grammatical point itself, and to the fact that it is, as you so elegantly understate it, "worth mentioning" in the context of this thread. Rather, I say that your point is essential in order to appreciate the subtle differences among the various uses of...Read More...
Last Reply By Doc V · First Unread Post

Span Toward

ahmad
Hello, everyone, "Brahman cannot be a bridge, since there is nothing beyond for it to be a span toward." The above quote is from The Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, Volume 3: Advaita Vedanta up to Samkara and His Pupils edited by Karl H. Potter...Read More...
Thanks a lot to both of you. The explanation provided by DocV is quite enlightening.Read More...
Last Reply By ahmad · First Unread Post

Correct use of “having seen”

Hello! Am I using “having seen” correctly in the sentence below? ”The images were etched in his memory from having seen them every day for as long as he could remember.” I’m starting to doubt myself. Thank you! EddyRead More...
Hi Doc V, Thank you for the helpful top-up. The latter is correct, per David’s suggestion. I suspect my original phrasing was misleading, hence my appeal for help. Feel free to email me some info on the editing services you offer. I have an agent who acts as a first-round editor, but I like to ensure the manuscript is polished before sending her way. I’d be interested in getting the first 50 pages or so edited, depending on your rates. Testimonials and reviews would also be helpful. Thanks...Read More...
Last Reply By eddyautomatic · First Unread Post

(a) minority

Hello, In the following sentence do we need "a" before "minority"? I don't think "a" is needed, but I'm not sure. In the organization where most managers are men, women are considered (a) minority.Read More...
Thank you, Gustavo, for your prompt reply. AppleRead More...
Last Reply By apple · First Unread Post

participial clause or continuous relative clause

A: More than two-thirds of Earth is covered by oceans, making it mostly a water planet. B: Ancient astronomers observed small lights in the night sky that moved among the stars, and called them planets, meaning wanderers. An the above sentence A and B, what are the parts beginning with "making" and 'meaning"? Are they participial clause with the subjects omitted or relative clause with relative pronoun + be verb omitted? Also, what do the omitted subjects refer?Read More...
Any noun phrase formed by a noun followed by V-ing can be analyzed as a noun followed by a reduced relative clause, where there is ellipsis of the relative pronoun (subject) and where the tensed verb is replaced with the present participle of the main verb: 👍👍👍👍 Note this above to understand why.Read More...
Last Reply By DohoonSean · First Unread Post

every game I play

Are these sentences correct: 1) Each game I play, I consider as a new challenge, even if it isn't in an important tournament. 2) Every game I play, I consider as a new challenge, even if it isn't in an important tournament. If they are correct, would you consider them literary or informal? Gratefully, NaviRead More...
Thank you very much, David, Wow! Another great reply! I had totally missed that ambiguity!! It was not a hidden challenge! Respectfully, NaviRead More...
Last Reply By navi · First Unread Post

too much

cocoricot
Dear teachers, 1. Don't spend too much time on video games. 2. Don't spend your time too much on video games. 3. Don't spend too much of your time on video games. Please tell me if they are correct and explain the meaning of the different positions of "too much''. Thanks.Read More...
Thank you, DocV, for your precious help.Read More...
Last Reply By cocoricot · First Unread Post

to as a preposition?

Learning to take good notes is very important. Good notes can help you remember and review a text you have read. There is no magic formula to taking notes when reading.You have to find out what works best for you. (Source: Iran's English Coursebooks) I wonder why we have "taking" (a gerund) after "to". Is this "to" a preposition? I've checked a couple of dictionaries. The common combinations are: (1) formula for: a formula for the withdrawal of US forces from the sea (2) formula that: There...Read More...
Thanks.Read More...
Last Reply By Freeguy · First Unread Post

are/is

Which are correct: 1) Who are richer than the French in this county? 2) Who is richer than the French in this county? 3) Which ethnic group is richer than the French in this county? 4) What ethnic group is richer than the French in this county? Gratefully, NaviRead More...

on the roads?

It is very difficult to find your favorite food when you travel. Sometimes it is even difficult to find healthy food. Besides, the prices of foods may be so high on the roads or in airports. Long trips may make you tired and weak and this can increase the risk of illness. So you should eat well while you are traveling. 1. Shouldn't "on the roads" be "on the road"? 2. Is "on the road" here an idiom, meaning " travelling in a car, especially for long distances "?Read More...
The name of the book is: Vision The authors are Iranian English teachers whose major fields of study is "English, as a second language."Read More...
Last Reply By Freeguy · First Unread Post

I'm having a problem vs I have a problem

Hi What is the difference between "I'm having a problem" and "I have a problem"? Are these the same as "I'm having trouble" and "I have trouble"?Read More...
Tara, Does this mean that our answers (mine and David's, in particular) to your questions on those other threads have sufficiently addressed this new question? If not, just tell us, and we'll try to give a better answer. DocVRead More...
Last Reply By Doc V · First Unread Post

the meaning of to infinitive

cocoricot
Dear teachers, The sentence below is in a dictionary. Please explain what it means when "to be'' is added to the sentence while to me the sentence still has its meaning without it. Honesty is essential if there is to be good rapport between patient and therapist. Thank youRead More...
Thank you, DocV, I fully understand.Read More...
Last Reply By cocoricot · First Unread Post

Can I say ?

I. If I know that my friend have changed the job, so can I ask suddenly that: 1 "Hey John! What did you do for a living? / Hey John! What was your job?" or I have to ask that "Hey John! Formerly, what did you do for a living? / Hey John! Formerly, what was your job?"? 2 "Hey John! Were you a teacher? or I have to ask that "Hey John! Formerly, were you a teacher?" And does he understand me when I ask suddenly like that? II. If I know that my friend have changed the name and I have forgotten...Read More...
Kimconu, In section (I) you can say, a: What did you do before this? or b: Did you use to be a teacher? In (II), you can say, c: Didn't you use to go by a different name? DocVRead More...
Last Reply By Doc V · First Unread Post
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