All Forum Topics

a reduction in thickness above

Architecture A ledge or recess in a wall formed by a reduction in thickness above; a setoff. Definition of "offset" in the American Heritage Dictionary Source: https://www.ahdictionary.com/word/search.html?q=offset Does "above" modify "thickness" or "a reduction"? Gratefully, NaviRead More...
Oh, it looks as though I was composing when Gustavo replied. My reply and his are compatible. We are saying the same thing in two different ways. The main difference is that I have described "above" as an intransitive prepositional phrase and he has described it as an adverb. I am OK with either classification. Whether it is a lexical adverb or a lexical preposition here, it is acting as an adverbial. Another slight difference is that Gustavo has described "above" as modifying "reduction in...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

restrictive/non-restrictive

1) The islands lie along the Florida Straits, dividing the Atlantic Ocean to the east from the Gulf of Mexico to the northwest, and defining one edge of Florida Bay. "The islands" are the Florida Keys. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Florida_Keys 2) 1) The islands lie along the Florida Straits, dividing the Atlantic Ocean , to the east , from the Gulf of Mexico , to the northwest, and defining one edge of Florida Bay. Sentence '1' is from the Wikipedia article on the Florida Keys.Read More...
Hi, Navi, Your version is technically (i.e. grammatically) more correct than the one in Wikipedia. However, I think the omission of commas in this particular case is more common because the phrases in question ( to the east and to the northwest ) are reminiscent of similar phrases used to describe boundaries, in which case using the comma would be wrong: - The islands are bounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the east and by the Gulf of Mexico to the northwest .Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Contributor · First Unread Post

"anyone" vs "anyone else"

What the difference between anyone and anyone else in the following sentences? Should I leave out else? John loves me more than anyone in the world. John loves me more than anyone else in the world. In 20 years John has earned more money than anyone has done. In 20 years John has earned more money than anyone else has done.Read More...

Usage of "any"

Hi there, are the following sentences correct? As an English speaker which one would you prefer? I admit I have asked many questions regarding any . Still I have some doubts. If any student is interested in joining the programme, he or she is requested to contact the authority. If any students are interested in joining the programme, they are requested to contact the authority. Any student interested in joining the programme is requested to contact the authority. Any students interested in...Read More...
Hi, Subhajit, While all four sentences are correct, I strongly prefer (3) and (4). The "if"-clauses of the first two sentences could easily be used in a context in which the "if"-clauses are not defining who is requested to contact the authority -- for example: 1a. If any student is interested in joining the program, please let us know. 2a. If any students are interested in joining the program, they are welcome to. Between (3) and (4), I prefer (3). With (3), there is the sense that there...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

I 'shall/would' be highly obliged if you 'would' take immediate steps in this regard.

Hi there, can anyone please tell me what the difference between two underlined sentence is? To The Chief Engineer, Telephone Bhawan, Kolkata - 700091 Sub : New telephone connection Dear sir, I would like to state that I applied for a new telephone on 05.02.2016. Though more than two years have passed since the application, I have not received the new connection yet nor have I been informed at what stage my application for the connection is at present. Kindly let me know when I can expect the...Read More...
Hi, Subhajit123, I find both sentences to be correct. The only difference I find is that in the first sentence the writer seems to be more certain that the company will solve the problem (that is why a Type 1 conditional is used). Instead, the second sentence is a Type 2 conditional that sounds sligthly less probable but at the same time more polite, mainly because of the use of the second "would." Actually, a typical conditional of this kind would use past simple in the condition: - I would...Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Contributor · First Unread Post

Unless anything/something is done...

Hi all GE members and moderators, Which sentence with "unless" is considered correct to replace the sentence "If nothing is done, this species will disappear soon"? a) Unless anything is done, the species will disappear. b) Unless something is done, the species will disappear. As I searched the Google Books, I found many sentences that include "Unless anything...". Logically, "unless" means "if...not", so "anything" seems to be correct. However, I also found many sentences in which "Unless...Read More...
And David, I'm truly sorry if it appeared that I was disagreeing with you. I took Tony's response to mean that he believed that you were, in fact, endorsing those examples. The point I intended to make was that his inferences from your reply were off the mark. Respectfully, DocVRead More...
Last Reply By Doc V · First Unread Post

Once time had been gone? VS Once time was gone : which one is correct

This is a very very important question to me. Let me repeat the question again: which sentence is correct?(I hope the both are correct) 1. it taught the students that it could never be recovered once time had been gone. 2. it taught the students that it could never be recovered once time was gone. Thanks for the helpRead More...
Suesteem, Welcome to the Grammar Exchange and thank you for your question. Unfortunately, neither of your examples make grammatical sense. If you are quoting from a published source, please provide a link if possible, or at least cite the title and author. Otherwise, I'll at least need to know the context in which the sentence occurs. What does "it" refer to? Please provide at least a paragraph or two to help us understand what is going on with "time". Thanks, DocVRead More...
Last Reply By Doc V · First Unread Post

PREPOSITION GOES AFTER RUN

I have a question about the preposition that follows the verb " run " in this sentence: - some calculators run ......... solar power. As an English learner, I may use "by", but I wonder if there is any preposition used by native speakers? I am looking forward to any of your explanation with an answer to the given question. Many thanks.Read More...
Tracy Ha, Welcome to the Grammar Exchange. I would only use the preposition "on" in this context. Similarly: A: Henry's car runs on gasoline, but Jimmy's runs on solar power. We could use the phrase "is powered by" instead of "runs on", but I would then want to use a different noun as the object of the preposition in order to avoid a redundant sound: B: Jimmy's car is powered by solar energy. I hope this helps. DocVRead More...
Last Reply By Doc V · First Unread Post

grow vs are grown

Bananas originated in Asia but now ..... in the tropics of both hemispheres of the world. They were introduced to the Americas in 1516. 1) grow 2) are grown Do you think #1 is ungrammatical here? According to "Understanding and Using English Grammar", written by Betty Azar (page 214), in the above sentence, passive is preferred! (No further explanations) Would you please elaborate on the reason? Thanks.Read More...
Tell your native friends to try and explain themselves better next time. It does seem that "banana plants" is more usual than "bananas" to refer to the trees, as these banana experts seem to imply at the beginning of the page. However, please note that somewhere in the middle the mentioned page says: Bananas aren't real trees, not even palm trees, even though they are often called banana palms. Bananas are perennial herbs. The use of "bananas" above clearly refers to the plants, trees,...Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Contributor · First Unread Post

Why do parallel structure rules not apply here?

The following sentence reads to me as grammatically correct, but when a student asked why it doesn't violate parallel structure rules, I didn't know how to answer: "European Union member states voted to extend a ban on neonicotinoid pesticides and have begun to put money toward further studies of how abundance is changing, what is causing those changes and what can be done" (https://www.nytimes.com/2018/11/27/magazine/insect-apocalypse.html). It's not the final list of clauses that's the...Read More...
Hello, JamesH, and welcome to the Grammar Exchange! You seem to be under the impression that verb phrases cannot be coordinated if they are in different tenses, whereas that is perfectly fine. For example: Bill graduated from law school and has begun to work for a law firm. I saw Bill yesterday and will see him again tomorrow. The thief was arrested and has been sentenced to two years in prison. There is nothing wrong with the sentence you have quoted. It contains no violations of required...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Reported speech

Help me answer this question. She wondered if I .................. my leg on that ski slope. 1) break 2) breaks 3) had broken 4) broke I think (3) is the best answer. I prefer it to (4) because " breaking the leg " was prior to " wondering about it ". Am i right? The source is an outside book called "The Best". Thanks.Read More...
Thanks for your help.Read More...
Last Reply By Yama · First Unread Post

reported speech

Hi, " How old was Spring-Rice when he went to Egypt?" She asked me how old Spring-Rice was when he had been to Egypt. Can we change "was" ~ "had been"? *Could you tell me more about reporting tenses with conjunctions, please?Read More...
Thanks a bunch, Gustavo and David 🌹 *Concerning "no need", I thank you again for this correction, however it was a typo.Read More...
Last Reply By ayman · First Unread Post

Today a trgic accident "has happened/happened"

Hi there, "has happened" or "happened" : Which one sounds natural? Are they both correct? And in the following reporting which tenses are correct? Kolkata, 14th December, 2018: Today a tragic rail accident has happened/happened near Kolkata. At least 50 people have died/died in the accident. Witnesses say/said the number of deaths could be more.Read More...
Hello, SUBHAJI T , Swan in his book Practical English Usage said, 'We normally use the present perfect to announce news, but when we give more details, we usually change to a past tense.' , so I would think that you can say: Kolkata, 14th December, 2018: Today a tragic rail accident has happened near Kolkata. At least 50 people died in the accident. Witnesses said the number of deaths could be more. I guess (I'm not sure) we can use the simple present in the 3rd sentence: Witnesses say the...Read More...
Last Reply By Hussein Hassan · First Unread Post

as it has dawned on us

a. It dawned on him like on every one of us here that life is rarely fair. b. It dawned on him like every one of us here that life is rarely fair. c. It dawned on him as it has on every one of us here that life is rarely fair. d. It dawned on him as it has every one of us here that life is rarely fair. Which of the above sentences are grammatically correct? Many thanksRead More...

For all

cocoricot
Dear teachers, I am not sure how to use "For all". I don't know whether after ''all'' is a noun or a clause. 1. For all hard work, he couldn't earn enough money to afford a small house. 2. For all he worked hard, he couldn't earn enough money to afford a small house. Thank you.Read More...
Thank you, Gustavo. Your explanation is so wonderful. Thank you very much.Read More...
Last Reply By cocoricot · First Unread Post

do you know of somebody

1) Do you know someone who died of old age? 2) Did you know someone who died of old age? 3) Have you known someone who died of old age? 4) Do you know of someone who died of old age? Which are correct? What -if any- are the differences in the meanings? I think '4' is not asking the addressee whether he or she knew someone of old age personally. Even if the addressee has not met that person but has merely heard of them the answer would be 'yes'. The other three seem to mean the same to me,...Read More...
Thank you very much, David, I used 'someone' because in the context I was thinking of the speaker was expecting an affirmative reply. I wasn't sure I was making the right choice. Maybe even is such a context 'anyone' would work better than 'someone'. Sentence '2' is interesting. I had not even thought of the possibility you mention. 5) "Did you know someone who died of old age while you were living there?" I suppose the natural interpretation of that sentence would be that 'dying' takes...Read More...
Last Reply By navi · First Unread Post

Why does this make sense?

Traffic safety officials predict that drivers will be as likely to exceed the proposed speed limit as they are the current one . Isn't the underlined portion awkward? What are the grammar rules governing this?Read More...

Which is correct?

Which option is correct? What are the grammar rules governing this sentence? 1) He had bought the bag, hoping that Sam will like it. 2) He bought the bag, hoping that Sam would like it.Read More...
Hello, Awkwarddpenguin, and welcome to the Grammar Exchange! You need "would" in the "that"-clause following "hoping." The phrase introduced by "hoping" is an adverbial phrase modifying the main clause, "He (had) bought the bag," which is in the past tense (or the past perfect, in the case of (1)). Because the "hoping"-phrase is in a past-tense domain, "will" needs to be changed (or "backshifted") to "would," which can be described as the past form of "will." I see no motivation for the use...Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post

Present simple/Present continuous

Are these groups of sentences correct gramatically? -He is leaving tomorrow at ten. He stays in Paris for two days. -He leaves tomorrow at ten. He is staying in Paris for two days. -He will have left tomorrow at ten. He will be staying in Paris for two days. Thank you.Read More...
Hello, Lipper and Ahmed, I think the sentence above could also form part of an itinerary: He stays in Paris for two days, then leaves for Amsterdam and stays there for three days, etc. I think we can also say: He will have left by tomorrow at ten. Now, I suspect Lipper wanted to know if the pairs of sentences could work as presented. My answer is that it would be unlikely, because that would mean changing the mode in which the verbs are used without any transition or linking: While "is...Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Contributor · First Unread Post

let the show begin

1) Let the show begin! What does 'let' mean in this sentence? How is that sentence different from: 2) May the show begin! 3) Would that the show began! Gratefully, NaviRead More...

Numbering

The responses to the first batch of the comments dated [insert date] are set out below by adopting the same numbering used in the comments. 1 "numbering" - I guess we should not use "numberings". 2 I cannot find the word "numbering" in Oxford Dictionary. I suppose that it is an uncountable noun. Is this correct?Read More...
Thanks, Gustavo.Read More...
Last Reply By terry · First Unread Post

difference between view and sight

The .............of the meadow is amazing (view /sight)Read More...
Hello, Poet20, I think it's the first time I see you here, so welcome! In this case you need "view" because, by saying "amazing," you are referring to the landscape. The word "view" does not involve the subject who is looking at the meadow: the meadow is there for anyone to contemplate. The sentence: - The view of the meadow was amazing merely describes the landscape. By contrast, the word "sight" would refer to the act of seeing, so it involves the subject. A sentence like: - The sight of...Read More...
Last Reply By Gustavo, Contributor · First Unread Post

study or studies

A student's work is their study or studies? About "study", when do we use plural and when singular? :) Thanks.Read More...
Hi, Ruifeng, I don't recommend using either one. I recommend using an infinitive: A student's work is to study . But if you must choose between "study" and "studies," choose "studies." With "study," their would be the sense that students study work, i.e., that they make a study of work.Read More...
Last Reply By David, Moderator · First Unread Post
×
×
×
×